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Eighteenth Century Colour 

Prints : an Essay on certain 
Stipple Engravers ^ their Work 
in Colour 






yV// righti reierifd 

First Edition, S^uarto, 1900 
Second Edition, S-vo, 1906 



A CLOUD of mystery and misunderstanding has 
gathered around the eighteenth-century Colour- 
Print. The alphabet of the subject is scarcely 
classic ; the very words convey different meanings 
to different people, and are translated, or mis- 
translated, variously. It offers us no system of 
orthography to make it clear that " Printer in 
Colours" and " Print -Colourer" are not inter- 
changeable terms, that the two men had little 
or nothing in common, that the same work- 
shop could seldom accommodate them both, and 
it was impossible for them to share the same 
palette. Yet this is the first important lesson 
for the student. And after the alphabet the 
grammar has to be mastered, the prosody of 
the medium, the syntax of the method. 

There were certain colours used by the old 
printers, the secret of which seems as irretriev- 
ably lost as the secret of that wonderful varnish 
which plays over a Guarnerius or an Amati. 
Many Villaumes in the trade are diligently seek- 
ing for it, but up to the present there are some 



tints, flesh tints, that have absolutely escaped, that 
are apparently beyond recapture, as fascinating 
and elusive as the resin of Straduarius. There are 
cognoscenti who affirm that Time is the missing 
ingredient, while others maintain that it is the 
old paper that makes the essential difference — 
the soft " rotted " paper with its uneven surface 
and faint sepia tint. But practical workers accept 
neither explanation. 

That many, even the large majority, of the 
prints in question were obviously finished by 
hand is a fact which, when acknowledged, does 
not give the key to the idiom. Eyes and lips, 
draperies and appendages, were accentuated after 
the print had left the press. But it was the 
purchaser often who made these additions, the 
print-colourer sometimes, the printer never. His 
colours, mixed with burnt linseed-oil, thick and 
pasty, did not accommodate themselves to the 
paint-brush. Nor to him must we look for 
the painted foregrounds, for the gold ornament, 
the brown size, for the " fakements " that 
supplemented, or discounted, his honest effects. 

The charm and the value of the old colour- 
print, however, are due to him alone, to his 
light hand and wary, delicate manipulation of 
the plate ; to the secret, so carefully guarded, of 
his grounds, and the mysteries, never betrayed, 
of his mixtures. 

To recognise his handiwork is the third 
lesson, for the individualising of the printer is 
essential to a sympathetic insight into his work. 


The later issues from the old plates — there were 
many produced early in the last century — 
lack all the quality, all the vague, indefinable 
charm that distinguished the originals. They 
are less crude than the more recent ones, per- 
chance, but the tone has vanished. 

In simple truth, the colour-printer died with 
the stipple-engraver, early victims both, to the 
inventive genius of Senefelder, the lithographer. 

It is unfortunate that so rare, so charming a 
branch of the fine arts should have been per- 
mitted to decay without an attempt being made 
to trace its genesis or disinter its formulae. 
Of all the many virtuosi who have made the 
eighteenth century their happy hunting-ground, 
not one has, apparently, got upon the scent of 
that delicate art of the colour-printer which was 
born, which flourished, and decayed within the 
last forty fruitful years of the century. 

There is no question as to the need of a book 
dealing with these old colour-prints, a book that 
should be at once an authority for connoisseurs, 
and a guide to collectors. Hardly a day passes 
in our national treasure-house of this art, the 
Print Room of the British Museum, without an 
inquiry being made that proves the public in- 
terest. Yet on this subject there exists neither 
treatise nor tract, neither book nor pamphlet. 
Perhaps the insufficient data have stopped the 
aspiring historiographer, and, more modest than 
I, he has hesitated to tell the little he knows. 

But the story of the short-lived union of 



engraver with colour-printer is full of interest. 
It is the only phase in the history of chalco- 
graphy, from the time when Ugo da Carpi 
made his first experiment in chiaroscuro, to a 
recent day when Mr. Theodore Roussel made 
his latest in colour-etching, that has escaped the 
attention of experts and print - lovers, or, at 
least, has eluded their pens. From the Floren- 
tine engravers of the fifteenth century to the 
engravers of the present day, whether in line, 
mezzotint, stipple, or aquatint, every school has 
had its advocate, every great Grecian his Homer. 
Only the Iliad of the Colour-Printer has remained 

I am venturing, perhaps with foolhardiness, 
into the gap. I do not propose to compete with 
bibliographers or poets, lacking the admirable 
patience of the one and the gifted inspiration 
of the other. But, being an enthusiast and a 
modest collector, I offer, to those whose pursuits 
and inclinations are sympathetic with my own, 
a short resume of the little that is on record of 
the art of printing copper-plate engravings in 
colour, from the inception of the idea to its 
grand climacteric. 

I apologise in advance for all that I have 
omitted, and all that I have included. The sub- 
ject-matter proved engrossing, and it was difficult 
to confine it within a narrow area. Colour-print- 
ing, once introduced, was practised in connection 
with every description of the engraver's art, line 
work by Hogarth and Strange, mezzotints by 



M'Ardell and Dawe, mixed methods by Bartolozzi 
and Mather Brown. Yet, to have attempted 
anything like a complete account of eighteenth- 
century engravings would have necessitated tra- 
versing ground already admirably covered by 
Beraldi and Duplessis, Redgrave and Bryan, 
Fielding, and, more recently, by Mr. Tuer ; it 
would have been a task far beyond my ambi- 
tion and my capacity. Even a cursory glance 
through the work of stipple -engravers alone, 
and the painters who inspired them, might well 
comprehend a survey of the Georgian era, of 
contemporary manners and morals, the subtle- 
ties of Court intrigues, and the intricate details 
of political imbroglios, not only in England but 
in France. For all these and much more, did 
the engravers and the colour-printers who worked 
with them, illustrate with burin and rubber. 

The inclination to linger and gossip about a 
period so near to, and yet so far removed from, our 
own, so eventful, so pregnant, was strong ; but I 
have tried, successfully I dare to think, to be 
desultory within reasonable limit. Gillray and 
Rowlandson, for instance, have had their bio- 
grapher ; and although no essay on eighteenth- 
century colour-prints would be possible without 
mention of these artists, I have never taken any 
special interest in their work, and have omitted 
them from my pages as from my own collec- 
tion. Personal predilection, I admit, has also 
been responsible for more notable exclusions. 

I started my own collection of colour-prints 

ix b 


in the most amateurish manner. I bought one 
or two because they looked well between a 
tall grandfather's-clock and an oak dresser full 
of " blue " ; a few more because they were 
illustrative of events, personages, or anecdotes 
with which I had grown familiar in the pages 
of Mrs. Delany or Walpole, Fanny Burney or 
Huish. Then followed, as the charm grew, a 
specimen or so of fine stipple- engraving, and, 
finally, some examples valued only for the tone 
and balance of the printing. 

It was through this indiscriminate collecting, 
nevertheless, that I became aware gradually it 
was a new language I was learning, a limited, 
lisping baby-tongue, perhaps, but full of music, 
a babble chorusing the epithalamium of printer 
and engraver. And, as the language became more 
and more familiar to me, so did its restrictions 
become more distinct and definite. I learned that 
it could express a ballade, but not an epic ; a 
villanelle, but not a threnody. 

I began to perceive the value and relation of 
the stippling to the delicacy of the result attained, 
and rapidly to realise that an engraving printed 
in other than brown, or black, or bistre, was an 
engraving spoilt, if it had originally been exe- 
cuted in line, etching, mezzotint, or woodcut. 
Without the stippling, the song was out of tune, 
the diction harsh, the phrasing abrupt. 

In this view I know I differ from many good 
judges, and from many interested friends, who 
treasure mezzotint work in colours, after Rey- 


nolds and Morland, Romney and Hoppner, with 
admiration and even enthusiasm. They do not 
miss the subtle undercurrent of sound, or note 
the absence of sympathetic gradation. 

I must admit, however, that I have rarely 
seen pure colour- printed mezzotints. Almost 
invariably, upon investigation, I have found that 
the most highly priced and valued specimens 
have been finished by hand, the details added or 
altered on the print itself; and these alterations, 
rather than the art of the colour-printer, have 
been the source of admiration. And I am certain 
this disillusionment is inevitable. For the rocked 
ground of a well -laid mezzotint plate is not 
suited for colour, the lights and the shades come 
out with the wrong values, the engraver's 
intention is spoilt, and the painter's effect not 
produced, while the printer has, as it were, 
become tongue-tied. 

I want to make my creed clear to my readers 
at the very outset of my book. For, if they are 
prepared to disagree, it is at least as well that 
they should have placed clearly before them the 
formula with which to quarrel. That creed, 
that dogma, is — that the printing in colour of 
copper -plate engravings was an art invaluable 
only to the stipple- engravers, adding to the 
sweetness, detracting nothing from the grace 
that was always the greatest of their charms, 
giving depth where depth was greatly needed, 
and, above all things, warmth to a method 
deficient chiefly in that quality. 



And though the colour-printer was a wonder- 
ful accompanist to the stipple-engraver, I would 
further lay it down as an axiom that both artist 
and accompanist went outside the limits of their 
talents when they attacked a large plate. The 
twin art practised by them, closely approximated 
to that of the " painters in little," is successful 
and beautiful the nearer it approaches the art 
of the miniature-painter ; the further it departs 
from this ideal, the coarser and more ineffective 
is the result. 

Admitting then my contention that only the 
stipple -engraving carries eloquently its need of 
colour, and repays its application, it will be 
seen that the zenith of the united arts is to 
be found between 1768, when the unfortunate 
Ryland made the so-called " chalk manner " 
fashionable, and 1 802, when Bartolozzi, old and 
broken, crept back to Portugal to die in poverty 
and obscurity, forgotten by the school he had 
founded and neglected by the print -dealers he 
had enriched. It is to these full years that we 
owe the fascinating miniature-like portraits and 
figure-subjects, which, by reason of their intrinsic 
beauty, no less than by the vagaries of fashion, 
are now justly exciting the cupidity of collectors 
and the attention of art-lovers. These years saw 
Bartolozzi, Burke, and Collyer at their best ; 
Gaugain, Tomkins, Jones, in excelsis. 

It is really necessary, in order to understand 
fully the value of these prints from an historic 
and anecdotic as well as from an aesthetic point 



of view, to consider a little the period in which 
they were produced. 

The utter artistic stagnation characterising 
that tumultuous period of English history which 
ushered in the reigns of the four Georges had 
given way to an activity little short of marvel- 
lous. England, hitherto ignored and despised for 
her artistic productions, England that had been 
obliged to look abroad not only for her portrait- 
painters but for her landscapists, having only a 
Walker and a Dobson to oppose to a Vandyck, 
while she could not boast even a fifth-rate Cuyp, 
suddenly awoke to a sense of her responsibilities, 
suddenly answered to the call of her prosperity. 

The Incorporated Society of Artists, faction- 
torn and divided under such men as Michael 
Moser and Paul Sandby, grew, in the passing of 
a night, into the virility of the Royal Academy 
under the patronage of the third George, under 
the presidency of Sir Joshua Reynolds. And 
from the date of the birth of the Royal Academy, 
for fifty glorious years, the artists, working boldly 
under the aegis of the throne, luxuriantly and 
brilliantly emblazoned the cold north with the 
tropical magnificence that had passed from Italy 
and Spain. These were the years of Reynolds 
and Gainsborough, Romney and Hoppner, Wilson, 
Lawrence, and Wright of Derby ; it was the era 
when the art of English landscape was to be 
found, and the comparatively new one oi gouache 
painting was to be pursued. 

In the wake of the great artists followed 


the great mezzotint engravers ; M'Ardell and 
Valentine Green, J. R. Smith and Earlom, trans- 
lated the painters into language which the 
cultured read with avidity. 

But the stipple-engravers appealed to a larger 
public. The age was no less great in politics and 
in literature than in art, Pitt and Fox were rivals 
in the Senate, the eloquence of Burke and Sheri- 
dan rang in the ears of the people, Johnson still 
rolled his eccentric gait and magnificent periods 
in the neighbourhood of Fleet Street and the 
Mitre, Goldsmith and Gibbon were writing 
their way in among the immortals, Horace 
Walpole was carefully penning his fascinating 
letters. Although Pope was dead and Byron 
hardly yet living, the memory of the one lingered 
in that wonderful coterie that surrounded the 
hospitable table of the President of the Academy, 
and here also the rich soil was preparing to 
fructify the other. 

It was indeed a wonderful period. I have 
apologised already for being discursive, but the 
temptation to dwell upon the society which, 
luxurious, immoral, and brilliant, in high feathers 
and big hoops, in powder and in patches, walked 
in the Mall, gambled at Lady Archer's, danced 
at Ranelagh and Vauxhall, and masqueraded at 
Mrs. Cornelys', would be irresistible even to a 
Hume. The Burney Diaries, the Selwyn Letters, 
the Garrick Papers, the Memoirs of poor "Perdita," 
rush so easily to the memory that it is difficult 
to pursue a single aim. 



The social history of the time is inextric- 
ably mingled with the old colour-prints. The 
artists, histrionic, pictorial, and plastic, clamour- 
ing for notice from Sir Joshua, shouted to him 
the gossip almost before the wits had time to 
write their lampoons. The caricaturists aided 
the polemicists. But the stipple-engravers, with 
their quick and easy methods, were the real 
society-journals of the day, the real mirror of 
society's taste. 

Those were days rent with political convul- 
sions, pregnant with events which in their final 
happenings gave England the command of the 
sea ; tempestuous, restless days. Yet, notwith- 
standing revolt and irreparable defeat in America, 
rebellion in Ireland, wars with France, Spain, 
and Holland, constant campaigning in India, and 
a reign of terror close to our shores ; notwith- 
standing political and social conflicts at home, 
the arts flourished and literature became enriched. 

In an England scarcely recovered from the 
Stuarts, and still torpid from the phlegm and 
accent of the earlier Hanoverians, this remark- 
able artistic revival wrote contemporary history 
in a hundred new forms, wrote its sociology and 
ridiculed its foibles. Nollekens rivalled Flaxman 
in the wonders of his modelling ; Chippendale 
competed with Sheraton in guiding the curves 
and fashions of our furniture ; beauty grew 
familiar, and ornament part of the daily life of 
the nation. The century rolled majestically to 
its close, gathering impetus with its splendour, 


breaking gloriously on the shores of Time, and 
its multitudinous voice was Form. But the 
Song of Colour was in the wind that blew the 
glittering spray along. 

On this great art-wave that flooded our land 
in the reign of the third George ; on the wave 
which at its flood gave us Reynolds, and at its ebb 
Turner ; the colour - print was the foam that 
whitened softly its crest. The debris of that 
wave, the very wreckage in its wake, is as rich 
and rare as the shells brought to the surface by 
deep-sea dredging. There are artistic pearls of 
great price in it, and strange, quaint reminiscences. 

This may not be a great art, this art 
left to us by the refluent wave, and found 
entangled in the sand and seaweed of oblivious 
years ; but through its delicate aid " Mrs. 
Clarke " lolls again impudently on her couch, 
red-lipped, black-eyed, fair-skinned, and lures to 
their undoing princes and potentates ; " Mrs. 
Robinson" fascinates us no less than she fasci- 
nated her faithless " Florizel " ; " Master Betty," 
" Lunardi the Aeronaut," and " Topham Beau- 
clerk," the exquisite, the friend of Johnson, the 
wit and the libertine, reawaken to life. " Mrs. 
DuflF" and the "Linleys " in strange juxtaposition, 
the virtuous " Mrs. Siddons " and the frail " Mrs. 
Crouch," the beautiful "Duchess of Devonshire" 
and " Emma " of the many histories, smile back 
at us through the century in all the charms of 
their mingled talent and beauty. 

So rich and so rare is this debris that the 


difficulty in forming a representative collection 
without excluding others equally representative, 
perhaps still more rare, is the first to be over- 
come by an aspiring amateur. A hundred points 
of interest, legitimately aroused, continually 
arrest attention and demand recognition. The 
interchange of thought between colour-printer 
and engraver, the way the one had to interpret 
and the other to invent, the proportion of 
responsibility, the infinite variety in impressions, 
the difficulties of classifying and comparing 
" states," are, perhaps, among the least of these. 
The pursuit of the artist in the printer is not 
always successful ; he played Jekyll and Hyde 
to the infinite bewilderment of his Boswell ; he 
had a distracting habit of signing his worst work. 
The inscription "printed in colours by . . ." 
which occurs on many large plates is almost a 
synonym for crudity. And although tongue- 
tied and crippled by their medium, the best men 
did nevertheless sometimes paint a mezzotint 
plate successfully ; to the distraction of judgment 
and the confusion of taste. The dogma of the 
natural selection between stipple-engraving and 
colour-printing has to be kept prominently in 
view to prevent an admiring side glance at a fine 
impression of " The Angling Party," or an 
envious one at " Lady Hamilton as Nature." 

There were nearly three hundred stipple- 
engravers at work during the last forty years 
of the eighteenth century ; scarcely one of them 
who did not at one time or another have recourse 



to the colour - printer ; scarcely fifty of them 
devoid of talent or interest either in themselves 
or their subjects ; scarcely half of them that 
do not deserve a position in a representative 

My book is written for the amateur and not for 
the expert. I learned what little I know without 
a text-book or a formula. All my sisters and 
brothers in the Cult of the Colour-Print were 
steering, like myself, when I started, through 
the shallows and backwaters of sale-rooms and 
curiosity-shops, without a compass. But when 
they knew that it was my wish to be a pilot, 
then one and all extended to me a generous 
sympathy, an untiring help, without which it 
would have been impossible to realise my desire, 
howsoever inadequately. Never has a hazardous 
undertaking enjoyed more encouragement from 
the outset to the close ; and the only flaw in 
my gratitude is the fear lest rny work should 
be found unworthy of all the kindness and help 
I have received. 

Prominent amongst the many friends of the 
book, I should like to mention Mr. Harland- 
Peck, whose wide experience has been as open 
to me personally as his fine and varied collection 
has been for the purpose of the work ; Major 
Coates, of Thrale's Hall, Ewell ; Lord Burton, 
the late Sir Henry Irving, Mrs. Lionel Phillips, 
Mr. Henry Percy Home, and Mr. Frederick 

And it is not only in facilities for cataloguing 



and examining prints that I have been materially 
assisted. To the industry, enthusiasm, and 
research of the late Mr. Hull, of the Prints and 
Drawings Department of the British Museum, 
I owe much. Mr. Emery Walker, and Mr. 
Haward, of the firm of Messrs. Brooker and 
Company, have placed their unique technical 
knowledge entirely at my disposal. 

Nothing then remains but to see if the Press 
is as tolerant in its judgment as the collectors 
were generous in their help. All I have hoped 
to do is to add something of classification to the 
general knowledge of a subject fraught with 
peculiar difficulty but no less peculiar charm. It 
is in this hope, and the further one that I shall 
interest even if I am unable to instruct, that I 
somewhat diffidently lay my work of love before 
the public. 




The early history of engraving and its paucity of record — 
The story of the Cunios — Giulio Campagnola and his 
stipple-work at the end of the fifteenth century 


Chiaroscuro the first step to Colour- Printing — The earliest 
Chiaroscuro Engraver : Ugo da Carpi, his right to the 
title, his history, and the source of his inspiration . . 24 


Early Colour-Prints — Sulphurs, Paste Prints, and Emboitage : 
all fifteenth-century experiments — Andrea Andrcani's 
Chiaroscuros in the sixteenth century — Hercules 
Zeghcr's experiments in Colour-Printing in the seven- 
teenth century — Johannes Teyler and his wonderful 
book, produced at the end of the seventeenth century, 
of line-engravings printed in colours from one plate . 50 


Jakob Christoph Le Blon, his life and his invention of Colour- 
Printing mezzotints — His process described, and its 
evolution from Chiaroscuro traced — His influence on 
contemporary engravers — Coloritto .... 69 




Le Blon's influence at work — Colour-Printing in England in 
the first half of the eighteenth century — Elisha Kirkall 
— Jakob and Jan L' Admiral — The Gautier D'Agotys — 
John Skippe — Pond and Knapton — John Baptist Jack- 
son, the last of the experimentalists .... 92 


The meeting of Stipple- Engraving and Colour-Printing in 
France — Jean Fran9ois and his artistic relationship to 
Jan Lutma — William Wynne Ryland's journey to Paris, 
his meeting with Fran9ois — Imitations of Chalk Draw- 
ings after Watteau, Boucher, and Fragonard, printed in 
colours from one plate under the inspiration of Comte 
de Caylus — The method finds little favour in France and 
is brought to England by Ryland, where it is at once 
firmly established in public favour for the reproduction 
of Water- Colour Drawings by Angelica KauiFmann — 
Ryland's career and execution, and the true story of his 
supposed confession . . . . . . .ill 


The state of manufactures in England previous to the intro- 
duction of machinery — Furniture, China, Paper — The 
prosperity of the middle classes and their desire for the 
beautifying of their homes — The art of Stipple-Engraving 
explained — The art of Colour-Printing Stipple-Engrav- 
ings described — The existence of Colour-Prints in proof 
state queried and confirmed . . . .137 


Bartolozzi — His character as a man and its effect upon his 
reputation as an artist — Some representative prints 
described, and a short list given of other desirable speci- 
mens of his Colour-Printed stipple-work . . .156 



The Stipple-Engravers and their works — Burke, Cheesman, 

Collyer, Conde, Dickinson, Gaugain, Hogg . . .169 


Jones, Knight, Marcuard, Nutter, Schiavonetti, J. R. Smith, 

Thew 198 


Tomkins, Chas. Turner, W. Ward, Thos. Watson, White, 

Wilkin ......... 224 

Other Stipple-Engravers — .-Apologia and Conclusion 249 




The early history of engraving and its paucity of record — The story 
of the Cunios — Giulio Campagnola and his stipple-work at the 
end of the fifteenth century. 

The art of engraving is at least as old as the story 
of Moses. The art of transferring engravings from 
gem or metal to material or paper came into vogue 
about the fifteenth century. There is a mass of 
evidence, with which, however, I do not intend 
to weary my readers, as to the exact date of the 
discovery. How it branched off into typography, 
and evolved from wood-blocks to metal-plates, 
from line to mezzotint, mezzotint to stipple, 
stipple to aquatint, is equally beyond my scope. 
In the pages of Vasari and Bartsch the battle of 
Chalcography in its primary stages is fought out 
under the respective banners of Maso Finiguerra 
and Albrecht Diirer. The curious in chrono- 
logy will find further gratification in Heinecken, 
Ottley, and Zani. Papillon, who contradicts 
most of what the others affirm, but who is always 
vivid and entertaining as an author, however 
unreliable as a man, will add the necessary zest 
to the study. 


It is incidentally interesting to note that 
nearly every engraver of worth became emulous 
at one time or another of the painter's effects, 
and that almost every experiment in engraving 
was followed by an attempt to get colour into 
the work by direct methods. In order, there- 
fore, to trace the progress of colour-printing, 
it is essential not to lose sight of the steps of 
the engraver. Although engraving and colour- 
printing never really dovetailed until the stipple 
joined them, the dream of such a happy union 
was the mirage in the sandy desert of the 
years between the Renaissance and the eighteenth 
century, actuating alike the chiaroscurist and the 

One sees an art through the medium of a 
temperament, and mine being rather imaginative 
than studious, the personalities of these old 
engravers and colour-printers have engrossed my 
attention and interest, to the exclusion of the 
obscure points raised by different writers as to 
the exact month, in the exact year, in which 
they made their various experiments. I no 
less than Whistler have scant sympathy with 
the art critic who considers a date an accom- 
plishment, and is satisfied when he has filed 
the fifteenth century and pigeon-holed the 

It is for this reason that the early specimens 
of engraving, stipple - engraving, and colour- 
printing have appeared to me, primarily, as so 
many illustrations of the histories of the Cunios, 


of Giulio Campagnola and Ottavio Leoni, of Ugo 
da Carpi, Andreani, and Teyler. I have skimmed 
the pages of the authorities above quoted, and 
culled from them that which has guided me in 
the order of the following pages. But I have 
not blindly followed their lead, and have searched 
outside accepted authority for details of more than 
one romantic career. The footprints of these 
pioneers of Xylography and Chalcography are so 
faint, the scent is so often lost, that to trace them 
has all the excitement of a hunt. I hope I shall 
enable my readers to share some of the pleasures 
of this delightful chase. 

The Cunios, for instance, have eluded pursuit so 
often, that a large number of print-collectors, and 
writers upon prints, have discarded them as mere 
myths ! Yet to me the Cunios are more real, 
more certain, and more living than the sceptics 
who have doubted them. That their story, if 
its veracity be admitted, demolishes the claims 
of Germany to have been first in the field of 
Xylography, and gives the coveted place to Italy, 
the legitimate pioneer of the Arts, has never 
been a stumbling-block to my belief in it. It 
also puts back the date of the discovery of 
wood -engraving two centuries, and leaves us 
that period with its use apparently in abeyance. 
But that the Chinese antedated Europe in this 
discovery is, in any case, beyond question. 

The story of the two Cunios resembles, in its 
spiritual essence, the story of *' Li Amitiez de 
Ami et Amile " in the Bibliotheque Elzevirienne. 



It has the strain of the troubadours in it, and the 
romanticism that forges another connecting link 
between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. 
It was first related by Papillon, the son of that 
Jean Baptiste Papillon who is familiar to the 
inquirers into eighteenth-century products from 
his dispute with Jackson for the credit of having 
invented, or adapted, the use of wood-block 
printing for paper-hangings. 

Jean Baptiste Michel Papillon tells us that in 
the year 171 9 he was sent by his father to the 
village of Bagneaux, near Mont Rouge, to paper 
a room for Monsieur De Greder. He papered 
the room for him, and he was then asked to 
paste certain coloured papers, in imitation of 
mosaic, between the shelves of the library. M. 
De Greder, on going into the room to see 
how the work progressed, found the young 
paper-hanger had abandoned the task and was 
occupied instead in poring over an ancient Latin 
tome. He asked the lad what it was he found 
to interest him in a book which it seemed im- 
possible he could understand. Of course it was 
the engravings and not the letterpress which had 
caught the attention of the young artisan. I omit 
the description of the prints, as they are to be 
found in all the authorities previously named. 

Young Papillon had been brought up in a 
family of wood-engravers. Three generations of 
them were at the very moment engaged in various 
branches of the art. It had been part of their 
education, indeed it was a family creed, that 



wood-engraving was first practised in Germany, 
or the Low Countries, and that the 141 8 
"Virgin" in the Brussels Library, or the 1423 
" St. Christopher," furnished the first authentic 
example. Yet here was a set of Italian engrav- 
ings, obviously taken from wood, with an inscrip- 
tion nearly two centuries earlier ! What wonder 
that the lad ceased from his uninteresting pasting 
and hung with absorbed attention over the 

They were eight in number, including the 
cartouche, or frontispiece, and the inscription, 
engraved in bad Latin, or ancient Gothic Italian, 
ran as follows : — 

The Heroic Actions : represented by Figures of the 
Great and Magnanimous Macedonian King the Bold 
AND Valorous Alexander : dedicated, presented, and humbly 
offered to the Most Holy Father, Pope Honorius IV., the 
Glory and support of the Church, and to our illustrious and 
generous Father and Mother, by us, Alessandro Alberico 
CuNio Cavalliere and Isabella Cunio, twin brother and 
sister. First reduced, imagined, and attempted to be executed 
in relief with a small knife on blocks of wood made thin, and 
polished by this dear and learned sister. Continued and finished 
by us at Ravenna. There are eight pictures of our invention 
painted six times larger than here represented, engraved, explained 
by verse and thus marked on the paper to perpetuate the number 
of them, and to enable us to present them to our relations and 
friends in testimony of gratitude, friendship, and affection. All 
this was done and finished by us when only sixteen years old. 

The date of the engravings was 1284. The 
book in which they were found had the follow- 
ing legend, badly written in old Swiss characters, 
with ink so pale as to be scarcely legible : — 



This precious book was given to my grandfather Jan. Jacq. 
Turine, a native of Berne, by the illustrious Count de Cunio, 
Magistrate, who honoured him with his friendship. 

Of all the books I possess I esteem it the most, on account 
of the quarter from whence it came into our family, the science, 
the valour, and the beauty of the amiable twins Cunio, and 
their noble and generous intention of thus gratifying their 
relatives and friends. Behold their singular and curious history 
in the manner in which it was several times related to me by 
my venerable father and according to which I have caused it to 
be written more legibly than I myself could have done it. 

Here follows the history, which I have slightly 
compressed, leaving, however, as far as possible, 
the archaic words and expressions of the ancient 

The young and amiable Cunios, twin brother 
and sister, were the first children of the son of 
Count de Cunio, by a noble and beautiful Vene- 
tian lady connected with the family of Pope 
Honorius IV. The young nobleman espoused 
the young lady clandestinely, without the know- 
ledge of the relations of either of them. When, 
through her pregnancy, the affair was discovered, 
these relations caused the marriage to be annulled, 
and the priest who had married the two lovers 
to be banished. The unfortunate lady, fearing 
equally the anger of her father and her father- 
in-law, took refuge in the house of one of her 
aunts, where she was delivered of these twins. 

Count de Cunio forced his son to espouse 
another more richly endowed lady, but he per- 
mitted him to take these children and bring 
them up in his own house, which was done 
with every instruction and tenderness possible. 



The son's new wife conceived such an affection 
for the children that she loved and cherished 
Isabella as if she had been her own daughter, 
loving equally Alessandro Alberico Cunio, the 
brother. They were both full of talent and of 
a most amiable disposition. They made rapid 
advance in the various sciences, and at thirteen 
years of age Isabella was already considered a 
prodigy. She perfectly understood and read 
Latin, composed verses, had acquired a know- 
ledge of Geometry, was skilful in Music, and 
played upon several instruments ; moreover she 
was practised in Drawing, and painted with 
taste and delicacy. 

Her brother, urged on by her example, en- 
deavoured to equal her, often, however, acknow- 
ledging that he could not attain so high a degree 
of perfection. He himself, nevertheless, became 
one of the finest young men in Italy ; he 
equalled his sister in beauty of person, and pos- 
sessed great courage, elevation of soul, and an 
uncommon degree of facility in acquiring and 
perfecting himself in whatever he applied him- 
self to. They became the delight of the house- 
hold, and they loved each other so perfectly that 
the pleasure or chagrin of the one or of the 
other was shared between them. 

His father having, in consequence of the 
troubles of Italy, taken up arms, was induced 
by the repeated solicitations of this valorous 
youth to allow him to make his first campaign 
when he was but fourteen. He was entrusted 


with the command of a squadron of twenty-five 
horse, with which in his first essay he attacked, 
routed, and put to flight, after a vigorous resist- 
ance, some 200 of the enemy. But his courage 
having carried him too far, he unexpectedly 
found himself surrounded by many of the fugi- 
tives, from whom, notwithstanding, with a valour 
not to be equalled, he succeeded in disengaging 
himself without sustaining any other injury than 
that of a wound in his left arm. His father, 
who had flown anxiously to his succour, found 
him returning with one of the standards of the 
enemy, with which he had bound up his wound. 
He embraced him, full of delight at this glorious 
achievement, and at the same time, as his wound 
was not considerable, and as he was desirous of 
rewarding such bravery upon the spot, he 
solemnly made him a knight, dubbing him in 
the same place where he had given such great 
proof of his extraordinary valour. The young 
man was so transported with joy at this honour, 
bestowed on him in the presence of the troops 
commanded by his father, that, wounded as he 
was, he instantly demanded permission to go and 
see his mother, to inform her of the glory 
and of the honour that he had just acquired. 
This was granted the more readily, because, his 
grandfather being dead, the Count de Cunio was 
glad to take the opportunity of testifying to the 
dear and deserted lady (who had always remained 
with her aunt a few miles from Ravenna) the 
love and esteem which he ever continued to 



entertain for her. He certainly would have 
given her more solid proof, by re-establishing 
their marriage and publicly espousing her, had 
he not felt it his duty to cherish the w^ife his 
father had obliged him to marry, and who had 
brought up their children so devotedly. 

The young knight therefore immediately set 
out, escorted by the remnant of his troop, out of 
which ten men had been killed or wounded. 
With this equipage and these attendants, who 
bore testimony to his valour wherever he passed, 
he arrived at the residence of his mother, with 
whom he stayed two days, after which he re- 
paired to Ravenna to show a similar mark of 
respect to the wife of his father. This lady was 
so charmed by his noble actions, as well as by 
his attentions towards her, that she herself led 
him by the hand to the apartment of his amiable 
sister Isabella, who, seeing him with his arm 
bound up, was at first alarmed, but easily re- 

It was during the time that he was resting at 
home, in order that his arm might be perfectly 
healed, that he and Isabella began to compose 
and execute the pictures of the actions of Alex- 

He then made a second campaign with his 
father, and was again wounded ; after which he 
returned and worked upon the pictures, con- 
jointly with Isabella, who applied herself to 
reduce them, and to engrave them on blocks of 
wood. After they had finished and printed these 



pieces, and presented them to Pope Honorius 
IV., and to their other relations and friends, 
Alessandro again joined the army, this time 
accompanied by a young nobleman called Pan- 
dulfio, who, having become enamoured of the 
lovely and brilliant Isabella, v^as desirous of 
distinguishing himself that he might become 
worthy of her hand. But this campaign, alas I 
was fatal to the Cavaliere Cunio. He fell, 
covered with wounds, by the side of his friend, 
who, whilst attempting to defend him, was also 
dangerously wounded. 

Isabella was so much affected by the death of 
her brother, which happened when she was 
barely nineteen, that she languished and died 
before she had completed her twentieth year. 

The death of this beautiful and learned young 
lady was followed by that of her lover, and also 
by that of her mother, who could not survive 
the loss of her beloved children. 

This quaint and typical narrative has too 
much in it recommending it to credence for it 
to be lightly dismissed. If it be not true, it 
deserves to be. It is charming to see the twin 
brother and sister, the one so valorous, the other 
so cultured, assisting each other in perpetuating 
these deeds of bravery. But one suspects that 
Isabella did most of the work, whilst, with 
aching heart and anxious thoughts, she followed 
in imagination her brother to the seat of war. 
Alessandro may have only assisted her in the 
placing of the men, in the outlines of the arms 



and helmets. It is not unlikely that his was the 
slower wit, that he neither invented nor executed 
with his sister's facility, but only stood by, in 
picturesque costume, with his wounded arm in 
a sling, suggesting alterations, commenting, and 
criticising. It was expressive of her amiable char- 
acter to give him half the credit ; but who shall 
say whether it was due to him ? He was chival- 
rous and brave ; it was a fine thought of his to 
go first to his own mother, unhappy and deserted 
lady, to relate to her the story of his exploits. 

I believe that the pictures awaited him on his 
return to Ravenna, that Isabella had executed 
them for his surprise and pleasure, and that 
only later, when the confinement consequent on 
his wounds became irksome, the idea of trans- 
ferring them to wood and from wood to paper, 
and presenting the impressions to their friends, 
was suggested by her to wile the weary time 
away. It is possible he executed the drawings, 
and she cut the blocks during his next absence. 
It was during his third and last sojourn at home 
that they transferred the impressions laboriously, 
after inking the blocks, by rubbing the back of 
the paper with their hands. 

I see the two eager heads bending over the 
paper, full of enthusiasm and excitement in 
the new game, as unconscious that they are 
making history as two children playing in the 
nursery. To believe that the whole pretty 
story is a figment of Papillon's imagination 
is absurd ; such a possibility seems to me 



far more inherently incredible than the story 

Although, as I have said, it is no part of 
my purpose to follow the history of engraving 
through the thirteenth or the fifteenth century 
in its various stages of evolution and develop- 
ment, to sift evidence or collate example, it has 
interested me to search for the germ of the 
seed, of w^hich the charming flowers are my 
Eighteenth-Century Colour-Prints. And to me 
at least, since I read the story, that germ has 
always been in the rough wood-blocks of the 
two Cunios. I like to think of that fair Italian 
maiden fashioning with her delicate hands the 
first faint phantom of the colour-print, and her 
fragrant memory hovers over my collection and 
lends it additional charm. 

Then having paid my tribute to Isabella, two 
other figures detach themselves from the misty 
past and seem to take form and substance about 
my portfolios : the first Stipple-Engraver and the 
first Chiaroscuro - Engraver. They are both 
Italians ; there were no Germans, no Dutch 
amongst those ghosts of the portfolio, until 
Johannes " Speculatie " from Nymegen, won his 
place in Rome, and kept it in Holland. 

The first Stipple-Engraver was Giulio Cam- 
pagnola, sculptor and scholar, artist and musician, 
noble inheritor of Isabella's inspiration, himself 
another and yet more prodigious prodigy, a lad 
of such brave parts that before he is fourteen 
Titian welcomes him in his studio, Matteo Bosso 



exhausts panegyric in writing of his achieve- 
ments, and almost ere he has reached manhood 
Hercules I. bids him to that marvellous Court 
of Ferrara, v^here all the arts are encouraged and 
all the artists find patrons. 

And the first Chiaroscuro-Engraver was Ugo 
da Carpi, whose tragic story seems to deepen the 
lines of his harsh face, and to bow, with peculiar 
sadness and humiliation, the hunchbacked figure. 

As the engraving was prior to the press-work, 
and Campagnola gave us the stipple, whilst poor 
Ugo's chiaroscuros only affected the printing, I 
give the former the first place in my narration. 

It is my view that the stippled copper-plate 
was the legitimate successor to La Maniere 
Criblee or Opus Mallet found in the very earliest 
engravings, ha Maniere Criblee is a mode of 
engraving in which the subject is worked out 
with a varied combination of dots, lines, and 
scratches, detaching themselves white from a 
black ground, assisted by lines and scratches 
detaching themselves black from a white 
ground. Famous controversies have raged round 
the prints executed in this manner. Whether 
they are wood-blocks or metal-plates ; whether 
they have been engraved in relief or intaglio ; 
whether they have been punched or cut .? Those 
I have seen, notably an early fifteenth-century 
" Book of Hours," with the figures in white line 
and the background black, with stars and dots 
and tiny scratches printed white, certainly suggest 
wood ; but others again leave the question more 



doubtful. What is certain is that Giulio Cam- 
pagnola, living in the midst of the most artistic 
and cultured society of Padua, and proceeding 
from there straight to such an art-centre as 
Ferrara under Hercules I., must have seen these 
criblee prints, and may have been indebted to 
them for the strange use to which he put his 
graving tool. 

The family of Campagnola was one of the 
oldest in Padua. Giulio's father, Girolamo 
Campagnola, held high office in the State of 
Venice, and was eminent among his contempo- 
raries for his great learning and exemplary life. 
He was the author of several works, amongst 
them an Italian translation of the Psalms of 
David, a 'Dissertation on the Jews^ some poetry, 
and two volumes bearing the titles of T)e Laude 
Virginitatis and De Proverbiis Vulgaribus. He 
was not only versed in philosophy and literature, 
but, like most high-born Italians of this era, was 
deeply interested in antique, as well as con- 
temporary, art. Among his intimates were 
Leonico Tomeo and Pietro Bembo, both inde- 
fatigable collectors and connoisseurs of reputation. 
At one time Girolamo seems to have had the 
idea of writing or compiling a history of the 
Art-Treasures of Padua ; and had even com- 
menced it, in the form of a series of letters to 
Tomeo. Vasari quotes from the work passages 
which serve to indicate that the author had an 
exaggerated view of the claims of Mantegna. 
The work was abandoned, probably when the 



tragic death of Giulio dashed to the ground the 
many hopes and dreams that had centred around 
him, and seemed to destroy the energies, and 
render futile the ambitions, of his eminent 
father. For Giulio had been his father's com- 
panion when the elder Campagnola had been 
busy in the libraries and studios of Padua, that 
fair city " gemmed with gardens, set in green 

The brilliant lad of whom Matteo Bosso, his 
godfather, wrote so enthusiastically to Hector 
Theophanes, had acquired Greek and Latin 
before he was thirteen, and was " so familiar 
with Hebrew that he might have assimilated its 
principles with his mother's milk." Everything 
he learned he remembered, everything he saw he 
was eager to copy. In addition to acquiring his 
knowledge of languages, he drew and painted, 
and modelled and executed bas-reliefs ; in the 
intervals he taught himself " to play the lute, 
he sang and he wrote and composed verses." 
The only thing this pioneer in stipple-engraving 
seems not to have done in those brilliant youth- 
ful days at Padua was to engrave ! 

Little or nothing of these early works of his 
has descended to us, and it seems possible that 
his contemporaries, led away by his gaiety and 
charms, by his grave father's delight and pride 
in him, by a hundred personal graces and a never- 
failing wit, overrated the talents that were so 
bewildering in their multifariousness. The pride 
these most learned citizens of Padua took in the 



phenomenal boy bubbled over in their letters 
and records. We find the precise and religious 
Matteo Bosso placing on record his opinion that : 
" Giulio Campagnola may rival his greatest 
masters — there are no pictures, however perfect, 
of Mantegna or of Bellini which he cannot faith- 
fully reproduce. ... As to living people, he can 
render them so vividly and with such perfect 
expression that it is impossible not to recognise 
every feature of the subjects. ... If God should 
see fit to grant him a long career, if his ardour 
does not cool and he only fulfils the intention of 
Providence, who has dealt out her gifts to him 
with such lavish hand, this youth, whom many 
old men of renown might well envy, will be the 
pride, not only of his father but of his country. 
A ray of his renown will, perhaps, even be 
reflected upon me, for he is also my cherished 
son, my son in God. His father, in the exercise 
of his duty as a magistrate, had brought him 
with him to Ravenna, when I saw him, and 
although we had little conversation together, he 
impressed me in an extraordinary manner. I do 
not ignore the fact that children do not always 
fulfil their promise, and I should perhaps reserve 
my prophecy for a safer age ; but when I think 
of all this young man intends and has achieved, 
I cannot help becoming enthusiastic. ... If ever 
father was worthy of such an offspring, assuredly 
it is Girolamo, who has brought him up with 
such assiduous care in order that he may carry 
out the traditions of his illustrious family." 



I have given a free translation of this letter, 
because it was probably on the strength of it 
that Hercules first sent for the young pheno- 
menon to the Court of Ferrara. Hercules spared 
no effort in his desire to draw to his Court the 
most distinguished men of the Peninsula. And 
it did not matter to him in what direction 
Giulio's talents might ultimately develop ; he 
would be able to find employment for him. If 
languages were his forte, there were recently 
discovered Greek and Latin masters to translate 
into the vernacular ; if architecture, Hercules 
was devoting a great deal of time and thought 
to the adornment of his chapel, — already it 
was said to be the finest in Italy, and musicians, 
specially imported from France, made its services 
notable. Also he was adorning the courts and 
staircases of his delightful palace near the Cathe- 
dral with wonderful sculpture, and with marble 
fountains, and he was ornamenting the oratories 
of several Brotherhoods with frescoes. 

It is difficult to learn in what capacity Giulio 
was first received at the Court, whether as savant, 
musician, or artist, and what was his position in 
the midst of the illustrious men brought together 
by the Prince, — whether the reputation that had 
preceded him made them doubtful of his claims, 
so exaggerated, so phenomenal ; whether he was 
accepted as an equal or laughed at as an impostor. 
His name is not mentioned by the most pro- 
minent historians of the day. Giambastista, 
Geraldi, Muratori, and Bartoli ignore him 

17 c 


unanimously. Yet it is assuredly an irony of 
fate that of all that he achieved, or that was 
claimed for him in Padua, so little remains, and 
that his fame, for us at least, rests upon the deli- 
cate stipple-engravings he executed at Ferrara, of 
which there is no contemporary comment. 

His career must have been comet-like in its 
brilliancy and its sudden eclipse. A sonnet on 
the death of Pope Julius II., a few drawings, a 
dozen engravings, are his scattered remnants. 
No sculpture, no authentic paintings, not even 
the wonderful dead Christ supported by two 
angels that he painted for Bembo on the walls 
of his studio, live to confirm the eulogies of 
Matteo Bosso. 

I think we must look for the cause of his 
collapse in the pages of Panfilo Sasso and Pom- 
ponio Ganrico. To reconstruct history from 
such sources has a never-failing fascination. It 
is there that we read of his passion for the fair 
and lovely maiden destined for Caesarc Borgia. 
This is probably the maiden, immortalised in 
the print of two figures and a landscape. The 
beautiful young girl holds a lute in her hand, 
her eyes are resting upon it, shyly, downcast ; 
the young man is gazing at her passionately. 
His rich Venetian costume and guitar, the draw- 
ing of the figure, the whole composition, recall a 
picture of Giorgione's, now in the Louvre. 

That Giulio Campagnola loved this young girl, 
and that she returned his passion, Ganrico has told 
us ; that the shadow of Borgia hovered over their 



love, and that, by some means or another, they 
were separated before marriage had consecrated 
their vows, appears early in the narrative. A 
profound mystery rested on the fate of the maiden 
— a mystery terribly hinted at, but never actually 
revealed. There was a poisoned cup in it, and a 
face once beautiful, horribly marred, but details 
are lacking. 

Giulio, spoilt child of fortune, whose lightest 
wish had almost ruled in Padua, found himself 
thus hideously thwarted and opposed in Ferrara. 
All his ambitions, and all his work, became sub- 
ordinated to a feverish desire first to discover 
the fate of his inamorata, and then to avenge it. 
Passions ruled high among the Italians of the 
sixteenth century. In the eagerness of his pur- 
suit he crossed the path of those in authority, 
and such crossing was not to his advantage. 

If he had proved himself worthy, if he had 
established his claim to the title of genius with 
which he entered Ferrara, the protection of Her- 
cules might have been extended to him, and his 
story might have run differently. But he showed 
himself pre-eminent in nothing, save in gallantry, 
and there were many noble youths in Ferrara, 
before Savonarola taught them abnegation, who 
were his equals even there. Away from the 
wise control and fatherly pride of Girolamo, the 
gaiety and temptations of the capital had proved 
altogether too much for Giulio's strength and 

The unhappy love-affair was apparently only 



the climax of the dissolute years. Rumours of 
his falling -off must have reached Padua, for 
Girolamo sent his nephew, Domenico Campa- 
gnola, to question him, to help him, if need be, 
to reclaim him, though his friends in Padua could 
scarcely credit the stories that reached them. 

Domenico was of a very different nature 
from his mercurial, unhappy, brilliant cousin. 
Whether he used his influence wisely with 
Giulio, whether he used it at all, history does 
not relate. And he was not the man to attract 
the attention of the poetasters. We know that 
he set up a studio, and received apprentices, 
achieving also a measure of artistic success on 
his own account. 

Meanwhile Giulio, in a vain attempt to 
release his lady from a situation " in which he 
imagined she was placed," came into contact 
with the hirelings that guarded the sacred per- 
son of the Borgia, and received a wound which 
" seemed less to him than the wound that 
rankled ever in his breast." From this wound, 
however, he never recovered. 

The glamour and poetry inseparable from 
the period, make this story of Campagnola 
prettier in the reading than in the analysis. We 
see Giulio in purple velvet doublet and silken 
hose, in mantle and plumed cap, playing the 
lover bravely in the forest. But we could see 
him more plainly, if we would, in the shadow 
of his cousin, restless, discontented, and unhappy, 
sneering at the talents he was too idle to emulate. 


dashing off with his fatal facility the sketches he 
would never have the patience to elaborate into 
pictures, now railing against the Government, 
now caricaturing its leaders, now helping Dom- 
enico with his own far more brilliant brush, now 
interrupting him and his pupils with snatches of 
song and recitation. His versatility seems to have 
continued, meandering in a shallow stream, but 
never becoming a broad river of progress. 

Idly he picked his lady's lineaments with the 
point of a graver on the yielding copper prepared 
for his cousin's graving-tool. He invented his 
process, his method to which we are so deeply 
indebted, with even less thought for posterity 
than did the Cunios when they wrote the title- 
page to the history of the whole art of engraving. 
He was so eager to perpetuate his lady's charms 
that he had no time for studied line or laborious 
hatchings ; that, and that only, was the motive 
that drove his rapid pricking - graver. The 
copper yielded him her features almost after a 
morning's work. It was to secure this very 
speed, by the way, that Bartolozzi, nearly three 
centuries later, gave up his magnificent line. 

Besides the landscape with the lovers, Giulio 
Campagnola left eight other authentic engrav- 
ings. They differ very little in execution, and 
they all owe to the stippling a great softness and 
delicacy of effect. It is not, however, so sur- 
prising that they failed in receiving contemporary 
notice or praise, when we remember with what 
comparative contempt the eighteenth-century 


cognoscenti treated stipple-engraving. Campa- 
gnola's dot is very small, and is mixed with a few 
hatchings lightly scratched in with the point. 
In some instances he has etched his figure in 
double lines with dots between ; in others he has 
discarded line altogether and depended for effect 
on dot alone. His " St. John the Baptist " is an 
example of the former ; a nude figure asleep, 
generally known as " La Femme Couchee," of 
the latter, manner. It is intensely interesting 
work, not only for its intrinsic charm, but 
because it seems like faint tracing on the walls 
of time, writing " Rheu fugaces " to a wasted 

To advance from the Cunios to the Campa- 
gnolas, from la maniere criblee of the fifteenth 
century to the sixteenth-century stipple of Giulio 
Campagnola, needs perhaps the gossamer bridge 
of fancy. But there is no difficulty in finding 
solid foothold between Giulio Campagnola and 
the seventeenth-century Ottavio Leoni, and from 
him onward to the earliest eighteenth-century 
stipple-workers in France — Fran9ois, Bonnet, and 
Demarteau, who preceded and inspired all the 
others. This method of engraving was never 
wholly in abeyance ; isolated specimens are 
dotted, in every sense of the word, over work in 
wood and metal from the time of Campagnola to 
the time of Lewis. 

Ottavio Leoni was an artist who excelled in 
portrait-painting. His fashionable atelier was 
thronged with Pope and Cardinal, Conte and 



Contessa, all who aspired to be in the forefront 
of Roman society in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. He was a painter by profession 
and an engraver only incidentally, but his graver 
owed to his brush the knowledge of the value of 
stippling in flesh-tints, which is the fons et origo 
of successful colour-printing. He engraved a set 
of heads of his brother artists, all dated between 
1620 and 1625, in which everything but the 
flesh is executed in line, the faces and hands being 
stippled in while the etching-point is used lightly 
to scratch in the shadows. They are very curious 
prints, and very rare. Their existence did not 
prevent Louis Martin Bonnet claiming to be the 
inventor of stipple-engraving a hundred years 
and more after Ottavio Leoni had left only his 
work to testify to his priority. 

From Bonnet to Bartolozzi is less than a step. 
Before taking it, it will be well, however, to 
pause and show how the workers in chiaroscuro 
followed each other with equal desultory slowness 
to the great goal of Colour. 



Chiaroscuro the first step to Colour-Printing — The earliest Chiaro- 
scuro Engraver: Ugo da Carpi, his right to the title, his history, 
and the source of his inspiration. 

Far cry as it would seem from the chiaroscuro 
to the colour-print, from the most charming 
stipple-engravings printed in colour to the most 
glaring polychromatic posters that disfigure or 
decorate our great city, the root idea of all three 
lay in the first invention of an engraving that 
gave light and shade by other means than 
laborious line-work. This invention consisted 
of successive printings from a series of wood- 
blocks, the first block carrying the outlines and 
deep shadows, and the following ones the broad 
effects of light, shade, and colour. The results 
of this process were called cameos, or engravings 
in chiaroscuro. For over two centuries this 
method, with various combinations, additions, 
and alterations, remained the only one employed 
in the production of so - called " picture 

There are many reasons to justify the naming 
of Ugo da Carpi as the first engraver in chiaro- 



scuro ; and Ugo da Carpi was a very remark- 
able character. There was romance in his 
struggle after the reproduction of the works of 
the great contemporary Masters. The rights 
of Germany in general, and Cranach in parti- 
cular, on which he may have encroached uncon- 
sciously, need count for nothing, when we mark 
how, under influences purely personal, and in 
circumstances negativing piracy, he saw and 
seized the advantages of the brush over the 
burin, dispensing with laborious outlines and 
line-shadings, roughing in his contours in a 
manner which is now called " Italian " but the 
merit of which was his alone. For the perfecting 
of his own invention he used everything that 
was known of the art of engraving on stone, 
on wood, and on metal, from 1491 b.c. to a.d. 
1 500 ; and he claimed the credit of his origin- 
ality without reserve. It is but just therefore to 
call him the first ancestor of the Colour-Printer; 
time has hallowed his claim, and to dispute it 
were ungenerous. 

The celebrity of Ugo da Carpi, according to 
Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers^ " rests on his 
wood-engraving " ; but it has always seemed to 
me that his celebrity, and the vital interest his 
very name evokes, are due rather to his person- 
ality, the age and influences that produced him, 
and the misfortunes that at once moulded his 
destiny and directed his ambition. 

He was born in or about the year 1480. 
Passavant places it earlier, and other authorities 



later ; but it will be seen that internal evidence 
confirms this as nearer the right date. His birth 
occurred during the lull that came before the 
storm, it was at that period, comparatively peace- 
ful, before the eager hand of Ludovico Sforza 
had given the first wrench to the pivot on which 
turned the political destinies of his unhappy- 
country ; a wrench that sent Italy ultimately 
struggling and spinning through the years, pur- 
sued by invaders from France and Spain, from 
Switzerland and Germany. It was comparatively 
peaceful ; but Popes and Despots, in the intervals 
of their encouragement of Art and Letters, in- 
trigued against each other, and against the States 
they governed ; the real masters of the situation 
being the lawless bands of soldiery, paid first by 
one and then the other, in money or honours, in 
dignities or lands, for the use of their arms and 
the loyalty of their leaders. 

Ugo's lot was cast in the wrong place ; he 
was born in the mountains instead of in the city, 
amid rough surroundings instead of in the home 
of luxury and art. He was a misshapen imp of 
the Renaissance, struggling for existence in a 
wild community of Condottieri. Something he 
took from his surroundings, inherited or imbibed, 
but a baptism of blood was necessary before he 
could enter into his great inheritance. It was 
not possible for him to work out his destiny in 
the calm and peaceful manner of his happier con- 
temporaries, he suffered, and he inflicted suffering. 
His life was full of incident, and his work is 



eternal. Yet history has ignored him, fable has 
left him out, and it is only in the descriptions of 
Marsiglio Ficino and the lyric pages of Pietro 
Bembo that the story of his dreams and of his 
art, of his exile, his great love and its tragic con- 
sequences, can be found at all. And the novelist 
has so enwrapt this in obscurity, and the poet in 
shabby Petrarchisms, while together they have 
made it so vague and shadov^y and indefinite, 
that imagination has to rend the veil, and sym- 
pathy to unwind its mystifying folds, before the 
tale stands out in all its primal and realisable 

Ugo da Carpi was the tenth child of Count 
Astolfo da Panico, some authorities say the 
tenth son, but the point is obscure. The en- 
nobled and ancient family of the Counts of 
Panico had held possession of their home in the 
mountain fastnesses nearly two hundred years, 
their patent of nobility dating from the thir- 
teenth century. Time had taught them nothing ; 
apparently no new movement had reached them, 
they were picturesque remnants of Medievalism 
dwelling outside the limits of an encroaching 
civilisation, sallying forth whenever the clash of 
battle sounded, casting the weight of the sword 
indifferently on the side of Pope or Despot. 
Their records show that the cunning and per- 
fidious policy of the Visconti, the scheming 
intelligence and lawless will of the Sforzas, had 
never lacked Panicos to support their ventures. 
When Filippo Maria had taken from poor 



Beatrice di Tenda her money and her troops, 
her influence and her person, it was a Panico 
who presided over her mock trial for adultery, 
it was a Panico who signed the death-warrant 
under which her execution followed. 

Their trade was slack when Lorenzo the 
Magnificent reigned in Florence and Alexander 
VI. ruled in Rome. It was in this dull time 
that Ugo's misfortunes began. He, poor de- 
generate son of a great race, had inherited 
neither the thews nor the sinews of his stalwart 
father and tall brothers ; he was misshapen, 
hunchbacked, weak. He made no show at the 
tilting-ring, his horsemanship was the ridicule 
of his relations, story of intrigue or faction 
moved him not at all. He grew up solitary and 
silent, in the shadow of a contempt never dis- 
guised, of a derision loudly expressed. 

Two confidants he had — two only. One was 
the Frate Senzio who ministered at the Church 
of St. Francis, tucked away under the hills, who 
heard his confessions and absolved him, when 
he owned to feints or subterfuges, resorted to 
in order to avoid brutal contests and trials of 
strength ; when he confessed that sword-play 
was abominable to him, and that his brothers 
and his father aroused in him feelings of hatred ; 
that, as they despised his aims, his life, his ways, 
so did he condemn theirs. 

The other was Giorgio Barbarella from Castel- 
franco, familiarly known as " Giorgione," from 
his great size, who stood by him when he hewed 



strange heads out of the fallen branches of trees, 
helped him when he drew weird figures with 
burnt sticks, admired him when he moulded the 
red earth into quaint forms. 

These two friends were no less important 
elements in the formation of his character than 
his uncongenial surroundings. Giorgione's sym- 
pathy had almost made an artist of him, the 
Frate had made a scholar of him, and almost a 
Christian. But fate intervened before either had 
finished his task ; a task which, had either 
accomplished it, would have eliminated, per- 
chance, the brutal Condottieri element, and thus 
averted the tragedy that followed. 

But because he was weak, because in that 
community of soldiers and adventurers he could 
never be anything but a drag and a drawback, a 
council of his father and brothers decreed that 
he should espouse Jiulia Pontana, his kinswoman, 
a gentle maiden who lived near the town of 
Castelfranco, in the cool neighbourhood of the 
lagoons, under the protection of the beautiful 
ex-Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro. 

This girl had the misfortune to belong to 
the Ghibellines, and the Ghibellines and the 
Panicos were as one name. The lands and the 
monies that were her portion, were deemed fit 
compensation for the fortune that the weak arm 
of her deformed kinsman could never gain for 
himself. So before eighteen summers had 
passed over his head they buckled on the sword 
he had no strength to wield, and sent him in 



the train of his brothers to do his wooing, in 
the brave trappings that could not hide his 
crooked spine. His scant locks floated under 
the broidered cap, his purple mantle left exposed 
the thin throat girdled with white linen — his 
poor, shrunken throat. They dressed him up, 
and jeered at him. Ugo hated his prospects, 
hated leaving his mountains and his comparative 
solitude, but it was useless to demur. One 
favour he had asked which had been granted to 
him. In that request poor Ugo's luck pursued 
him. He asked that Giorgione, the handsome 
stripling who was his only friend, who had 
sympathised in his pursuits, who had watched 
with him the golden sunsets and purple hazes at 
even, who had seen, as he saw, the mystery and 
the glory of colour, under whose plastic fingers 
grew wonderful pictures of angels and Madonnas, 
that Giorgione, who was his friend, should go 
with him in his wooing. And Giorgione was 
by his side when the cavalcade rode through 

The square-windowed turrets of Asola, the 
turrets the lads had so often gazed at from the 
distance, melting into the vast background of a 
vague Alps, grew solid before their eyes. They 
rode through the night only ; by the light of 
the moon they saw fair homesteads purple with 
vines and black with olives ; against her pale 
light the forest arabesques shaped mysteriously. 
The scene was bathed in mist in early morn, but 
it struggled into gorgeous tints as the sun rose 



in its splendid noon, the fields grew yellow, and 
even the cypress had golden threads. 

Catherine herself sallied forth to meet them, 
with all her maidens around her, and she was 
preceded by armed hirelings, by soldiers on 
horseback, their steeds gaily caparisoned, by all 
the pageantry her fallen state allowed. Con- 
spicuous among the maidens in her train was 
Jiulia Pontana. She was very pale, but her noble 
young head was poised above her square -cut 
dress of green brocade, with an air at once sweet 
and proud. Her head-dress was high, inter- 
plaited with cloth of gold ; in the middle of her 
forehead gleamed a jewel, held there by a chain 
of gold. Fairer sight no man's eyes could gaze 
upon, but, at first, it was not upon her their 
glances rested. The mountain clouds, now 
enveloping, now disclosing the panorama of the 
landscape, the high rectangular tower composing 
itself in cool colour and tranquillising line, the 
glow of pageantry in the foreground, filled their 

It was not until later, not until the feasting 
had begun, that Ugo saw Jiulia was fair. And, 
alas, Giorgione saw it at the same moment. 
Jiulia in her turn could not but see that Giorgione 
was straight and tall, with clustering golden 
locks, blue eyes that spoke traitorously ; and that 
Ugo was hunchbacked and lowering, a melan- 
choly youth with lank black hair. But in those 
days there was no dallying with family decrees. 
Each had scarcely time to flash the discovery to 



the other ere it was already too late. In pomp 
and in state, with rejoicings at the castle and 
feasting in its halls, the pontifical blessing rested 
on the heads of the ill-matched pair, and joined 
an unwilling bride to the wrong groom. Thirty 
days they feasted and kept high state ; the 
granaries were emptied and the wine -butts 
replenished again and again. 

Meanwhile the three young people passed 
strange hours ; Ugo using his privileges timor- 
ously, gazing at Jiulia till he learned by heart every 
line and every curve in that fair face, every flush 
that came and went in that delicate cheek, every 
shadow that haunted those blue eyes, every golden 
tint in that mass of hair ; Giorgione, more bold, 
overbold, teaching whilst Ugo was only learning. 

And here the story must halt a little ; deeds 
were done in those days of which the very rela- 
tion were impossible in ours. 

Jiulia was an obedient maiden who had given 
her hand where she was bid, and yielded herself 
to the husband who was allotted to her, as was 
the fashion of her age. But love was a flower 
that bloomed apace in the rich soil of Italy in 
the fifteenth century, and it grew and grew in 
her breast. Ugo was her husband ; he was a 
scholar and an idealist, a boy unlearned in the 
ways of women. He was the husband of the 
richest heiress in Castelfranco ; he was courted 
and flattered, the warriors pledged him, and the 
poets brought him their odes. It was all new 
to him — flattery, adulation, even ease of body 



and freedom from taunts. He may have been 
absorbed in his new duties and his new position ; 
he may be to blame for having so feebly guarded 
the treasure that had been committed to him. 
His love was too new to be exacting, and when 
his cares allowed him and his flatterers and 
myrmidons left him, it was sweet to wander 
alone in the enchanted gardens of Asola com- 
posing sonnets ; pursuing the beautiful, elusive 
imagery of his happiness. 

It was perhaps in the hours that he was en- 
grossed with these sweet thoughts that Jiulia 
was absorbed in still sweeter deeds. Giorgione 
painted her, as already he had painted her 
beautiful mistress. Whilst he sang in honour of 
the wedding, he sang also in praise of the bride, 
such songs to which she could but give ear. 
His gold curls floating beneath his tufted hat, 
his lithe tall figure in his handsome doublet, 
his voice that thrilled and penetrated, his lute 
attuned to every key, were in strange contrast 
to poor Ugo, tongue-tied in her presence by his 
love and bewildered by his authority. 

This part of the tale needs no telling ; every 
age and every clime has had its counterpart. 

Ugo's honour was the honour of the Panicos. 
And if his own arm was weak, there were six 
strong ones, ever ready with their swords, in 
causes just or causes unjust, for the very love 
of the fight, the rapid lunge against the soft 
resisting flesh, the blood-flow. 

Ugo dreamed over his happiness while Gior- 
33 D 


gione seized his. There came one day when 
there was a sudden incursion into a room, 
tapestry-hung and lofty, where a fair maid sat 
listening to a sweet song ; there were cries of 
alarm, a rush of colour to a pale cheek, there 
was quick sword-play, an inrush of the Cornaro 
retainers. They were all eager to fight, it 
was their pastime, without caring or knowing 
why, or for whom. Giorgione had his friends ; 
Ugo had only his rights. There was the clash- 
ing of swords, the shrieking of women, and the 
flowing of blood. And in the end the finest and 
tallest of the Panicos was lying with a dozen 
wounds in throat, and side, and chest, never to 
fight more for Pope or Despot. Giorgione had 
disappeared, and poor Jiulia was left to the tender 
mercies of her lord. 

And rumour did not spare details of those 
tender mercies ; Ugo's character, so terribly tried 
at so critical a period, was twisted out of its 
natural bent. It grew, for a short time, as mis- 
shapen as his person, incredibly spiteful and 
vicious, but above all things wretched. There 
were rumours of a malignancy that did not stop 
at words, of persecution that never slept, of 
barred doors and windows, of cruel deeds. Gal- 
lantry pitied the lady ; but she, at least, had her 
unpoisoned memories. Ugo had nothing but his 
deformities and deficiencies, his trust and its 
betrayal, with which to console himself. 

Soon rumours of Giorgione's successes at 
Court reached Castelfranco, of cunning portraits 



that his hand had wrought, of friezes and 
frescoes, of commissions from the State, of his 
friend Titian, and of the triumphs of both. 
Ugo's jealousy grew to burning -point : even 
thus had his ambitions soared in those days that 
seemed now so far off, when no Jiulia had come 
between him and his dreams of colour and form. 
Ugo could hardly bear his life. The torture to 
which he put his helpless victim contented him 
no more ; in very truth she could hurt him 
more with a word than he could hurt her with 
a blow. For he loved her. And she ? The 
very sound of his voice, of his step across the 
floor, the sight of his crooked shadow against 
the sunlight, were hateful to her. 

At last he betook himself to the Padre with 
his troubles, that Padre who had helped him so 
often before. Wise counsel was given him in 
that narrow cell. The priest sat with out- 
stretched arms, and pointed to the Cross on 
which was nailed the figure of Him who had 
suffered more than poor Ugo. He preached 
patience, he preached hope, he told Ugo of the 
higher life, he pointed out to him the narrow 
way. Ugo listened. That lean monk, no less 
earnest than the famous Friar of Ferrara whose 
spirit animated him, had always understood and 
pitied the artist-temperament of the unhappy 
boy. He bore his new pain badly, though his 
life had been one long pain. The Padre preached 
patience, and Ugo listened. If Ugo had done 
more than listen, if he had given heed, Bembo had 



had no story to tell, and these bald outlines had 
needed no filling in. And the Padre gave advice : 

" My son, thou art restless and uneasy ; thy 
heart burns within thee for jealousy of Giorgione, 
for love and for hate of thy faithless wife ; thou 
art tortured now with envy and ambition. Leave 
this place, it is dark for thee with unhappy 
memories. Thy brother's spirit haunts the 
chamber where thy pale wife sits forlornly at 
the window. Giorgione is ever under the 
lattice, the air is ever full of the sound of his 
lute and his rich voice singing. Get thee hence. 
There are castles where no memories dwell for 
thee, cities where thou wilt lose thy pain and 
thy bitter hatreds. Go ! my son. Thy wife 
will abide here in peace, and I will lead her 
thoughts to repentance and her heart to grace." 

" Her thoughts are of Giorgione ; there is no 
repentance in her," answered the poor boy, his 
thin face working, his restless hands plucking at 
his beads. 

For never yet had torture wrung from Jiulia 
confession or sign of sorrow. The good man 
spoke, Ugo tried to follow him. But always 
that pale wife of his, with cold eyes and ripe 
lips, maddened him afresh ; and in a hell of his 
own passions, made desperate by his own defici- 
encies, he wreaked on her sad vengeance for his 
own misery. 

There came one black day when Jiulia was 
alone with her women. There were moans 
from the high turret room wherein she lay, and 



strange sounds, and the echo of hurrying steps, 
and presently a new cry, quick and shrill — a cry 
at which the women smiled, and Ugo who knew 
not how to smile, or had forgotten the art, turned 
white and trembled. 

If Jiulia's love had been less strong, if per- 
chance she had not seen the crystal gates so near, 
when he bent over her and asked roughly, " Is 
this child mine ? " with anguish and choking in 
his voice, she might have spared him that slow 
smile, that glance so comprehensive with which 
she swept his figure. 

" Yours ? Per Dio ! My beautiful babe ! " 

The wild passion the words and look wrung 
from him was beyond his control ; the gurgling, 
new-born cry of the baby lying across her breast 
maddened him : it was less than to kill a chicken. 
His fingers had stifled the cry before his brain 
had time to recognise the inevitability of the 

Her eyes never met his again ; she was gazing 
across him to the glimmering square of the 
casement, where her lover had climbed so 
fatally. Perhaps she saw him there still. Ugo's 
last vengeance left her smiling. When her 
attendants rushed to her rescue, he was hanging 
over her with tearing sobs and shaking hands, 
kissing her pallor, the creeping cold of the dead 
face . . . telling her for the first time, when she 
was beyond hearing, something of what she had 
made of him. 

Not even the influence nor the power of 



those famous Condottieri of Panico were enough 
to save Ugo from all the consequences of his 
crime. Something he was spared thereby, and 
that sparing helped to write history differently. 
A less powerfully protected criminal would have 
been left with sightless eyes and head severed 
from his body, dangling in chains outside the 
grey towers and battlements of Asola. Or he 
might have been taken to Venice to be tried, 
dragged through the streets, his hands bound 
together by a cord, a rope fastened round his 
neck and tied in such a manner that if he 
struggled he would be strangled. Had the 
latter fate been his, he would not have struggled. 
Once he realised that Jiulia was indeed dead, he 
faced his accusers with an indifference that looked 
callous to any one who failed to read the anguish 
in those thin cheeks and sunken eyes. Cords or 
imprisonment, or death itself, were nothing to 
him. The blood of the only thing he had ever 
loved was on his loathsome hands ; all perception 
of colour was drowned from the wretched eyes 
by tears of agony and acquiescence. They forced 
him to escape, that strong, powerful family of 
his, they would not have it said a Panico had 
hung, or walked in chains. They drove him 
forth and covered his retreat. Neither escort or 
money would he have, nor help of any kind. 

He left Castelfranco before they had envaulted 
Jiulia and her baby, one gray, cold morning ere 
the mist had risen — a morning that differed little 
from the one on which he had ridden up, Gior- 



gione by his side, with nothing on his mind but 
a wonderful exhilaration at the beauty of the 
scene. Now the mists closed around him coldly, 
the cold struck right through to his heart. 

It took his chronicler two cantos to tell of his 
wanderings from Castelfranco to Florence, but 
the incidents can be summed up almost in two 
sentences. He had but a few piastas in his 
pocket, he had little knowledge of the road, he 
had neither desire nor hope. He passed aimlessly 
through plains and scattered villages ; he wan- 
dered as if in a dream. By the time he came 
to Correggio, footsore and weary, his body had 
failed him almost as had his mind. He could 
not remember his name ; he called himself Ugo 
da Carpi, Ugo from Carpi, from the last little 
village he had passed through before time and 
place had been blotted out from his memory by 

It was in the house of Pellegrino AUegri 
that he lay for a space while strength came 
back to him, together with something of the 
youth he had scarcely known, of the health 
he had never enjoyed. The sunshine of the 
place revived him, the unwonted sense of freedom, 
above all things the spirit that was in the very 
walls of that hospitable house. Antonio, the 
son of Pellegrino Allegri, who was to become so 
famous under the name of Correggio, was a 
child — a child at whom he looked with envious 
eyes. Always with brush, or chalk, or busy 
creative fingers, Antonio reminded him of the 



dawning of his own life. But alas ! with what 
a difference ! The little lad so gay, so beautiful, 
was full of the joy of life, he was the pride and 
embodied ambition of his happy artist father, 
he, too, was a genius, but a fostered one. 

By the time Ugo was well enough to resume 
his journey, he had recaught some of the elder 
Allegri's enthusiasm, he had forgotten something 
of his trials and of his miseries. He went forth 
from Correggio, Ugo da Carpi, for once and for 
ever. He wanted to blot out all that had gone 
before ; he almost succeeded. Anyway, the 
young man who arrived in Florence — there is a 
notable description of his entrance — was once 
more the artist, nevermore the lover. In that 
description of his arrival we see him where a 
little group of nobles, distinguished by their rich 
apparel, their embroidered mantles, their long 
locks and gay caps, were gossiping round a great 
block of marble. The great block attracted the 
wanderer ; he stood and stared with the rest. He 
was a poor figure amid these gay young men. 

But one there was whose eyes fell on him 
pityingly, a pair of grey eyes set wide apart in 
an Apollo-like head. Moved by intuition, by a 
fine impulse, Michael Angelo turned towards 
him, and would have given him alms. Ugo 
knew who he was, the fame of the " Sleeping 
Cupid" had reached him already at Castelfranco. 
The tears came into his eyes, a sudden new-found 
self-sympathy thrilled through him. He shook 
his head, he would have no alms. 



" You want to see the marble ? They are 
putting a wooden barricade round it. See, this 
is what it will be when I have fashioned it." 
He no longer offered alms, the tears in Ugo's 
eyes had taught him quickly. He held out to 
him a waxen model. 

" They wanted me to show it them," he said, 
simply, indicating his companions. " You too 
are an artist .? " For something in the way Ugo 
looked at the figure, something in the way he 
touched it, gave the intuition this direction. 

" Maestro ! " faltered Ugo, and kissed the 
extended hand. 

They stood together for the space of a 
moment, under the blue Florentine sky, in the 
shadow of the Duomo. Michael Angelo Buonar- 
roti, who lovingly handled his model, with a 
side-glance of happy pride at that huge block, 
out of which was to leap, under his fashioning 
hand, a figure so incomparably beautiful, so noble 
in its attitude, so grand in its pose, that all 
Florence thronged to see it, and Rome sent an 
envoy to bid him to the Vatican ; and Ugo da 
Carpi, beggar and hunchback, murderer and 
miserable, whom no man knew and no man 
helped. But invisible, dim, intangible, no less 
over sunken head than over lofty brow, floated 
the golden crown of immortality. 

I am telling Ugo's story baldly. There are 
big lapses in it, strophes that seem to lead 
nowhere, but one or two incidents appear to fix 
the dates. 



After that meeting with Michael Angelo, 
Florence was sacred ground for Ugo. Obsti- 
nately he kept to his new name ; he tasted 
privation, poverty, almost starvation. We know 
that he lodged for a time at the Porta Santa 
Croce, where the Franciscan monks had founded 
the hospital for strangers. It was characteristic 
of his pride that he never appealed to the artist 
for help or sympathy, though he well knew 
both would have been given to him. He 
tried to utilise the pastimes of his childhood for 
his living. He modelled in clay, he painted the 
portraits of contadine for a few quattrini ; for a 
short time he worked in a Majolica factory. 
The next we hear of him definitely is that he 
was employed in the studio of that wonderful 
boy whose fame had preceded him from the 
ducal studio of Urbino, that city situated among 
the Apennines, on the borders of Tuscany and 
Umbria. He ground Raphael's colours and 
watched the flesh-tints grow under his marvellous 

In the studio of " II Divine," another change 
came over the mind and the life of Ugo da 
Carpi. Here, none laughed at his pursuits, 
none derided his dreams. A very passion for 
work seized upon him ; he ate only to keep 
body and soul together, he slept in an outhouse 
shaken by the wind, cold in the winter, damp 
in the early spring. And then, for the first 
time, he found peace. He had been near 
happiness at Asola, an exquisite, trembling 



happiness, the unrealised expectation of which 
had driven him from his balance. But here 
Peace came to him, a beautiful gift to a soul 
distraught. He studied early and he studied 
late ; he copied his master's work, content when 
a line had shaped to his satisfaction, when a tint 
had nearly caught the glow of flesh. In that 
studio, where none knew his story, he laboured 
for nearly two years. Raphael smiled en- 
couragement, gave him now a drapery to 
sketch in, now a background to prepare, always 
a kind word and thought from the depths of 
his own generous nature. 

Art took the place of jealousy, and the desire 
for revenge, the love of women and the image of 
Jiulia. There were other workers in that studio, 
eager admiring disciples of Raphael Santi, young 
men, rich men, noblemen, enthusiasts. Ugo 
was something of a drudge amongst them, some- 
times a butt for their wit, but trouble had taught 
him humility. He cleaned their palettes, he 
mixed their colours, in secret he emulated their 
efforts, and hope floated golden before his eyes. 
It was never to be more than a haze, a mirage 
in the desert of his sad life, a dream that faded 
in the morning light. We can picture him 
during those few years in Florence, dreaming 
these happy dreams, the great gift of work in 
his hands. 

And this was the time when his poor spine, 
which had already served him such a scurvy 
trick in his growth, chose for serving him 



another ; or perhaps it was the result of his 
burning sullen tears, of those sleepless nights, of 
those weary wanderings. Whatever the cause, 
however, the result was that he found his eyes 
growing gradually dim, his fine appreciation of 
colour leaving him ; the contours before him 
still seemed sharp, but the shades were all blurred 
and confused. 

At first he knew not what had befallen him. 
Each rising day he hoped the blues and greens 
would come again, the reds grow steady and 
the pinks transparent ; each day fear knocked 
louder at his heart, each night his terror-haunted 
sleep, drenched with dread and sweat, gave him 
snatches of sight, and hideous abysses of dark- 
ness. He grew so thin and pale and wretched 
that even those gay youths amongst whom he 
worked could not but note it, and asked what 
ailed him. He shrank into silence, the silence 
that had been the habit of his life, that had only 
partially forsaken him in the last few months. 
It seemed to him if once he gave his trouble 
words he would give it life, it would leap into 
certainty. Blindness was coming upon him. The 
blessed light was going. How could he voice the 
words, though they stared at him from wall and 
sky, from palette and canvas ! 

It was Raphael himself — Raphael, whose 
ever-tender heart was moved by such obvious 
suffering — who questioned him one day, so 
gently, with such delicate tact and intimate sym- 
pathy, that the flood-gates were burst and the 



trouble was told. How tenderly he was com- 
forted, how hope was given to him, is past the 
power of prose, or at least of my prose, to tell. 
In the end Raphael sent him with a letter to a 
friend of his own at Bologna, — not a barber to 
cup him (again and again Ugo had tried this 
drastic remedy), but a scholar, learned in all 
the knowledge of Hippocrates. He journeyed 
to Bologna with a heavy heart. Although 
Santi had given him hope, his eyes could not 
support the promise. The sky was always gray, 
whilst grass and mountain-side, and stream and 
flowers, had at intervals the one hue. He was 
heavy-hearted and sad. But the stars were fight- 
ing for him in their course, and the sun of his 
destiny was rising, not setting. 

When he came to Bologna with Raphael's 
letter, he was received at the house of the 
learned doctor. He was put to wonderful tests. 
Presently it transpired that his was a strange and 
almost unique case. All the scholars in Bologna, 
learned in medicine, saw him and worked upon 
him ; he was passed, as if he had been a rare 
gem, from one hand to another. And not only 
those of Bologna, learned men from Venice, 
lured by the description that had reached them, 
journeyed to see him. What had come upon 
him was a lesion little known then, but the 
description of which is to be found in the pages 
of Galen. It was not blindness, but colour- 
blindness, an obscure spinal lesion which, while 
it bereft him of one sense, left him all the others. 



When they had taught him that he had not the 
great darkness to fear, they had given him almost 
all the medicine he needed. His body grew 
stronger than it had ever been, his weakened 
hands, palsied by fear and not by disease, obeyed 
once more his guiding will. Of course he had 
to give up many hopes, many dreams. Perhaps 
if he had known at the beginning, what he knew 
now, it would have seemed as if all the joy of 
his life was quenched. But he had feared blind- 
ness ; when he heard that it was colour, alone, 
which had failed him, it was only as if music 
had gone out of his days ; and form remained ; 
always, they told him, he would see line and 
shape, and shade. 

He could not go back to Florence, the fair 
city of his fair dreams ; he could not return 
to that studio, nor work under that master 
with whose lesser efforts he had hoped to vie ; 
and indeed by this time Raphael was already in 
Rome. Ugo sought for work in Bologna, and 
found it with Francia, the famous worker in 

There it was he met Marcantonio ; there it 
was he saw the woodcuts of Albrecht Diirer 
transferred to metal plates by Raimondi. Ugo 
was ever emulous of excellence. In secret he 
tried to copy the great engraver, as before he 
had tried to follow in the steps of the great 
painter. The lines, the cross-hatching, the close 
labour, tried his eyes terribly, but once he was 
on the track, he would rather they ached, and 



burned, and failed, than that his fellow-workman 
should have no rival in his triumph. 

And Marcantonio was having a veritable 
triumph with his copies of " The Life of the 
Virgin," his " Little Passion," his " Adam and 
Eve " ; he was growing rich and daring. He 
laughed at his hunchback satellite. Ugo toiled 
after him, but slowly within appreciable distance. 
His own invention of chiaroscuro-engraving came 
to him suddenly, like a revelation ; probably he 
thought it was really one. Possibly, however, for 
there is always a possibility of vagrant memory 
underlying such artistic coincidences, he had seen, 
half unheeding, the rude chiaroscuros of Cranach. 
The talk of the adjustment of light, and the 
value of shades, heard long ago in the house at 
Correggio, had lain dormant in his mind, for- 
gotten ; now it was revived in a sudden illumin- 
ating flash. Chiaroscuro was a term hardly used 
in the studio of Raphael. Light and shade, 
shade and light, reiterated themselves until they 
thundered, like the sea, in Ugo's ears. He saw 
his way to achieve Raimondi's results with less 
than half Raimondi's labour, in less than a quarter 
of the time Raimondi had to devote to his plates. 

We can picture the hunchback artist, dim- 
eyed, behind that narrow window-slit, with his 
rough wood-blocks, his primitive tools, his 
precious parchment, and hands trembling so with 
excitement that he could scarcely direct the 
brush. It came to him in a flash. Blocks to 
carry the outline, blocks to carry the shades, 



successive printings — an effect astonishingly 
simple ! 

Suddenly as the idea had come to him, 
months of experiment yet remained, months of 
weariness and heart -ache and disappointment. 
His industry never flagged, and in truth he 
never doubted his ultimate success. But he had 
dreamed of himself as a great painter. What he 
had never dreamed and barely learned was how 
little he needed to become a fine draughtsman. 

In meeting Marcantonio, in copying from 
him, he learned unconsciously to draw, and to-day 
there is no one to deny the quality of the power 
he acquired. It was after he had learned to draw 
that he mastered the art he had invented, the 
art of chiaroscuro-printing, sufficiently to produce 
a copy of '* The Death of Ananias," by Raphael, 
in so short a time, and with such a bold and 
daring effect, that not only Francia, but all 
Bologna, crowded into his workshop. It was in 
competition with his fellow-workman that he 
printed the " Massacre of the Innocents " from a 
sketch sent to him for the purpose by Raphael 
at Rome. He had finished his print ere Marc- 
antonio had much more than prepared his plate. 
And, after that, he had not only all Bologna but 
all Venice his patrons and admirers. 

Comparing the two prints to-day — they are 
both in the British Museum — the fine black line 
of the one, its vigour and delicacy, with the 
rough aspect of the other, its chiaroscuro and 
coarse brushwork, it is difficult to give Ugo da 



Carpi enough of the praise due to him. It is 
necessary to bear in mind the ultimate develop- 
ment of the idea, in order to be fittingly grateful 
to its originator. It is pleasing to note that, after 
all his troubles, the State of Venice, when he 
applied for protection against piratical imi- 
tators, not only gave him the boon for which he 
craved, but showered honours and rewards upon 
him. They did not accuse him, like later-day 
chroniclers, of being naught but a pirate himself ! 

There were very few years of life left to the 
artist. His first chiaroscuro is dated 1518, and in 
1520 the event proved the learned doctors had 
been wrong, and that the spinal lesion, of which 
they had spoken so lightly, was but a warning of 
graver trouble to follow. He had an apoplectic 
fit, and died after a few hours' unconsciousness. 

Those last years of his, however, had lacked 
nothing of consideration or luxury, as luxury was 
then understood. He went far afield. The 
crooked figure of the first chiaroscuro-engraver 
was no stranger even at the Court of Alexander, 
but none ever recognised him as one of the 
Condottieri, as a Panico. He was never anything 
but Ugo da Carpi, until the day of his death, 
when a miniature of the unhappy Jiulia was 
found hanging round his neck, to give the clue 
to the moroseness of his disposition, and the 
solitariness of his days. 



Early G)lour-Prints — Sulphurs, Paste Prints, and Emboitage ; all 
fifteenth- century experiments — Andrea Andreani's Chiaro- 
scuros in the sixteenth century — Hercules Zeghcr's experiments 
in Colour- Printing in the seventeenth century — Johannes 
Teyler and his wonderful book, produced at the end of the 
seventeenth century, of line engravings printed in colours from 
one plate. 

The idea of colour-printing, of producing 
engravings which should more nearly interpret 
painted pictures than mere black and white, 
always floating, chimera-like, wherever the 
engraver set up his workshop, though it can 
hardly be said to have developed, was pursued 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
simultaneously in Germany and Italy. From 
both we have chiaroscuros of varying excellence, 
and a few experiments in colour-printing of 
more or less interest. 

If I might be allowed to set technicalities and 
the Cunios on one side for a moment, I should 
be inclined to consider the earliest " sulphurs " 
as the very earliest colour-prints, as well as the 
very earliest engravings, although the colour was 
due more to accident than design, and it is per- 



haps straining a point to apply the word engraving 
to what might be more correctly entitled a 
" cast." The theory is that these were first 
taken from niello-work as proofs, for the satis- 
faction of the workmen only, during the progress 
of the chasing. It is supposed that the sulphur 
print was the first gleam that lit the way to Maso 
Finiguerra's wonderful discovery. 

To produce the sulphur-print, a mould was 
taken from the engraved vessel or ornament, 
which was generally of gold or silver metal, and 
from this mould a cast was taken on sulphur. 
The lines were then filled in with black, in 
order to give a complete idea of what the final 
result would be when the design was filled in 
with nigellum. Comparatively few of these 
sulphurs are in existence, as, the material being 
brittle, preservation was difficult. Of those 
that I have seen, the shadows are blurred 
and formless, but the outlines have stood well. 
In some the faces, hands, and flesh-tints appear 
as if they have been painted in order to 
brighten the effect. There is gilding on some 
of these sulphurs, over others, metallic powder 
would seem to have been dusted, or a light 
solution of copper applied. To an ordinary 
observer they have a very curious appearance. 
It is as if a thin cake of yellow soap, hard and 
dry, has been covered by a fine line engraving 
on a thin sheet of mother-of-pearl. Whether 
it is permissible to entitle them the first colour- 
prints may be a debatable point, but there can 



be no doubt that there is more play on the sur- 
face and more colour than was achieved when 
such results were more deliberately sought. 

There are on record two or three more, very 
early and very interesting, attempts at chromo- 
engraving, or rather chromo - printing. The 
designation applied to these examples by Weigel 
and Passavant is generically " impression in 
paste," and the sulphur casts were as directly 
responsible for them as for the engravings of 
Finiguerra. Passavant divides the three known 
varieties into " Velvet-like Impressions," " Em- 
broidery-like Impressions," and " Impressions in 
Paste," properly so called, or metal engravings 
printed in relief. 

Of Velvet-like Impressions the only known 
specimen was found in Upper Germany. Its 
date is supposed to be about 1480. It is, or 
was, in the collection of Monsieur Weigel, who, 
after the habit of collectors jealous of their 
treasures, describes it as " unique." The subject 
represented is St. George on horseback. The 
peculiar character of the impression has been 
produced, apparently, by first covering the 
ground or paper with a slight paste of a golden 
brown colour, and beating or working this with 
a wooden instrument, which must have been 
something like a nutmeg-grater, until it assumed 
a grained appearance. Over this was laid a 
stencil consisting of stars, alternating with a 
pattern of berries, three on a stalk. The design 
was printed on this elaborate ground from a 



wood-block generously inked ; the whole im- 
pression was then dusted over with a velvet 
powder before it had time to dry. The effect 
resembles the velvet or flock paper of the 
present day. 

Of Embroidery - LIKE Prints the known 
example comes from the Franciscan Convent at 
Meissen, and is now in Dresden. Its execution 
is also supposed to date from about 1480, but it 
is considerably more difficult to define the pro- 
cess with certainty. This print represents St. 
Francis receiving the Stigmata. The Saint is 
kneeling and gazing at the Crucifix, from which 
proceed five rays of red light. On the right is 
the figure of Brother Elias asleep. The flesh 
and the rocks are of a reddish tint, while the 
drapery of Brother Elias is reddish brown, the 
underneath part blue. That of the Saint is 
covered with lines laid in curves or patterns, 
grey in colour and evidently intended to repre- 
sent embroidery. The ground of this print is 
black, as are also the folds of the draperies. The 
landscape and trees are green. 

Other empreintes en pate, or " paste-prints," 
have been found on paper specially prepared in 
some manner to imitate fabric. This rep or 
roughened paper holds well the gold - ground 
paste which is spread over it. A plate, which 
has had a design worked in relief, in grey or 
whity- brown substance, is pressed on to this, 
then the whole design is dusted over, as in 
the above-mentioned impression, with a velvet 



powder which adheres to the sticky surface with 
peculiar effect. 

These were some of the earliest efforts in the 
direction of colour - printing. Peter Schoeffer, 
of Mentz, one of the most famous of the early 
pioneers of the art of printing, who perhaps, 
therefore, should be reckoned as a typographer 
rather than an engraver, also made, in the middle 
of the fifteenth century, an attempt at colour- 
printing, which was ingenious and not unsatis- 
factory. His desire was to imitate the illuminated 
manuscripts, or missals, which had engaged the 
attention of the monks before the introduction 
of printing. He certainly succeeded in pro- 
ducing some initial letters which closely re- 
sembled the painted ones. The means he 
employed were comparatively simple. He took 
an engraved block, the surface of which was 
overlaid with colours, and sunk into it another 
block coated with a different colour. He got 
his impression therefore with one printing, and 
obtained by this means the perfect exactitude 
and regularity of outline which was the greatest 
difficulty that the early chiaroscurist had to 

A peculiar interest is attached to Peter 
Schoeffer's experiments, from the fact that the 
essence of successful colour - printing in the 
finished art which gives the title to this book is 
that the effect should be wholly produced at 
one striking. In the interval between Peter 
Schoeffer and Johannes Teyler there seems to 



have been no other attempt made to obtain a 
result in colour from a single printing. 

Although it is outside my purpose to follow 
the evolution, it is interesting to note that not 
one of the ideas which underlay the foregoing 
experiments has been wasted, and that traces of 
each are to be found in the ornamental work, 
both here and in France and Germany, not only 
in the eighteenth, but in the nineteenth century. 
The uses of stencil, emboitage^ prepared paper, and 
metallic powders, are amongst the commonplaces 
of modern decoration. 

Among the specimens, by the way, of Ugo 
da Carpi's work, which have survived to the 
present day, are a few printed in two colours, 
mulberry and green. Whilst I was engrossed 
in the romance of his life I omitted to give 
details of his methods of working. They may 
be taken to be the same as those employed in 
Germany ; the superiority of the early Italian 
work generally to that of Germany and the Low 
Countries is still a debatable point, but I confess 
to a preference for the former. 

Chiaroscuro-printing, then, was actively pur- 
sued during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
in the following manner : 

On a block of wood were drawn or engraved 
the outlines of a design. In some cases the 
deeper shades were added to this first outline- 
block, but in most instances the deep shadows 
were executed on a second block, while a third 
block was used for the half- tints or lighter 



shades. With the three blocks to his hand, the 
printer commenced his production. No press 
was used, but a roller. The first, or outline- 
block, was inked black and an impression taken 
on paper. The second block was inked brown 
or some other colour, and its engraving printed 
over the first. The third block carried yet 
another colouring, generally green, and finished 
the whole impression. The greatest care was 
necessary to secure the register ; that is to say, 
to ensure each block being exactly the same size, 
and placed in exact position, in printing from it 
one over the other. It was only by attention to 
this detail that the chiaroscuro became effective. 
Want of care in this particular is responsible for 
the grotesque eflfects so frequently met with in 
old prints. 

The root idea, in thus printing separately from 
these differently inked blocks, was to give to the 
work of the engraver those gradations which the 
painter effects with the use of the brush, flat tint 
and colouring. Sometimes the practice was to 
print from the blocks the various effects of light 
and shade, in the same colours but with various 
consistencies. The German School, in seeking 
in their chiaroscuros to imitate the pictorial 
eflTect of colour, used two, or at the most three, 
blocks ; the Italians used four or more, and with 
much greater success. 

The next development along the same lines 
was through a combination of metal and wood- 
block printing. The outlines were engraved on 



metal, and the wood-blocks, inked in colour, were 
superimposed on the black impression taken from 

Another combination of wood and metal was 
that of engraving the outlines and light shades in 
intaglio on copper, and using the engraved wood- 
blocks to colour over the impressions. 

An easier and simpler way, adopted by some 
of the German engravers, was to engrave the 
outline on a block of wood, and to work off, on 
a proof from it, another block, which, carrying 
colour, had such parts hollowed out as were 
intended to be left white upon the print. These 
white, or high lights, were thus formed by the 
ground of the paper. 

The foregoing examples indicate, if they do 
not exhaust, the attempts made to produce en- 
gravings in colour during the fifteenth century 
and in the beginning of the sixteenth. It is, of 
course, well known that the early block-prints — 
the " Paxes," " Little Passions," and " Block 
Books " — were habitually coloured by hand, but 
neither these, nor the stencil-patterns on playing- 
cards, are of serious moment in the history of 

Passing over the beautiful chiaroscuros of 
Andrea Andreani produced at the end of the 
sixteenth century, the next important contribu- 
tions to the portfolio history of engravings in 
colour were those made by Hercules Zeghers 
early in the seventeenth century. 

Hercules Zeghers was a Dutchman, and a 



painter as well as engraver. There were three 
Flemish artists of the same name, but they 
appear to have been no relatives or connections 
of the enterprising experimentalist, Hercules, 
who painted landscapes and animals. He seems 
to have enlisted the interest of Rembrandt, for 
no less than six of his landscapes occur in the 
inventory of that Master's effects taken in 1656. 
Little is known of his paintings, but, if they are 
to be gauged by his skill as a colour-printer, it 
is fair to assume that Rembrandt must have been 
guided in his purchase by other considerations 
than artistic ones. And this supposition can 
be supported by the known facts of Hercules 
Zeghers' life and death, which excite more pity 
than admiration. He was a confirmed toper, 
and was in constant pecuniary and domestic 
difficulties. His death occurred through lean- 
ing out of a window and waving a cup of 
greeting with drunken abandonment to an 
acquaintance in the street. He swayed and 
tottered, and thrust his body so far through the 
narrow casement that, unable in his condition to 
regain his balance, he fell forward and broke his 

His so-called colour-prints are very curious 
productions. There are many of them in the 
British Museum ; landscapes executed severally 
in brown, green, and blue tints. To judge from 
external evidence it would seem that he etched his 
plate and printed from it in a thin coloured paste 
on specially prepared paper ; a second metal 



plate carrying the shadows. But imperfect 
register, or want of steadiness in the working, 
blurred every effect, and the result is generally 
more interesting than beautiful. Some of the 
impressions that I have seen, have a suspicion of 
aquatint, and it is possible that he anticipated 
this discovery, using the acid, however, as a 
wash, and not through a ground. In the 
majority of the prints the etched lines are lost, 
the proposed picture-effect is not achieved, and 
the shadows are mere smudges. One outline- 
proof in the Museum, however, shows Zeghers 
to have been a fine draughtsman, with a bold 
and convincing line, and a freedom with the 
etching needle, suggesting the influence of the 
great master, Rembrandt. 

But when the whole result of these experi- 
ments is summed up, it must be admitted that 
colour-printing, up to the time of Johannes 
Teyler, had, after all, not yet arrived. A 
picture- engraving had not been produced, and 
the nearest approach to an imitation of a wash- 
drawing was to be found in Andrea Andreani's 
uncoloured chiaroscuros. Copper-plate had taken 
the place of niello ; the art of engraving, from 
being timorous and tentative, had become bold 
and definite. The artist, however, still trusted 
entirely to his line, and left nothing of import- 
ance to the mechanic who transferred it ; and 
the colourist, in every successful production he 
has left us, worked on the paper itself, as well as 
on the plate or block. Chiaroscuro and stipple 



were not dreamed of in the same connection, 
Ugo da Carpi and Giulio Campagnola remained 
the pioneers of a movement which had been 

Then, almost as simultaneous as had been 
the advent of Cranach and Ugo da Carpi, rose 
two enthusiasts for colour-printing on the 
horizon of Art. Widely separated by race and 
country, by language and style, the one using 
the new mezzotint, the other the old line, Jakob 
Le Blon in England, and Johannes Teyler in 
Holland, produced, towards the end of the seven- 
teenth century, engravings in colour, which con- 
tained, though as yet without amalgamation, 
almost every quality essential to the end each 
had in view. They brought the art of colour- 
printing so near to beauty-point that it becomes 
obvious that only the revival and perfection of 
the stipple were necessary to establish it com- 
pletely as a fine art. 

Johannes Teyler antedated his better-known 
rival by a few years, but the point is unimport- 
ant. The extraordinary work of this master, 
however, entitles him to a place in the history 
of engraving which, up to now, no writer has 
frankly assigned him. Weigel puts him on the 
same level with Schenk : Bryan and Redgrave 
ignore him entirely. Yet, in the unique and 
wonderful book that is known simply as 
" Teyler's," there are flowers and classic figures, 
landscapes and architectural drawings, birds, an 
elephant, and five marvellously articulated studies 



of the human figure, a variety of subjects that 
suggests Hollar, all carefully and delicately 
printed in colours. And the date of the book 
is about 1680 ! The architectural studies are 
ornamented with the wreaths and designs sub- 
sequently known as " Louis Seize," and in other 
respects the work is remarkable for its prophecy 
as well as for its performance. 

Johannes Teyler, who is described by Nagler 
as painter, draughtsman, and copper-plate en- 
graver, was a native of Nymegen, in Holland, 
where, early in life, his talents gained him 
the position of Mathematical Professor at the 
Military College. When this College was 
broken up, Johannes Teyler journeyed to Rome 
to gratify a taste in Art, which he had hitherto 
subordinated to his scholastic position. In Rome 
he was speedily recognised as a worthy member 
of the Guild of Artists, and generously received 
into the Brotherhood, where the nickname of 
" Speculatie " was bestowed upon him, probably 
in allusion to the restless inventiveness of his 
mind. Jacob de Hens, in his biography, alludes 
to him freely under this name. 

But before Johannes Teyler had had time 
to establish himself thoroughly in Rome, he 
was recalled to his native land, and offered the 
position of Military Engineer to King Frederick I. 
of Prussia. The reputation he had acquired in 
the Art world at Rome had not, in the opinion 
of his countrymen, eclipsed that which he had 
already gained for the designing of fortifications 



and the scientific working out of architectural 
plans ! In these he was without a rival. 

He received this appointment in 1676, when 
still, comparatively speaking, a very young man. 
But his artistic taste outlived even the rough 
routine of his uncongenial work. Although after 
this date we hear of no original pictures from 
his hand, he seems to have devoted what leisure 
he possessed to the reproduction of the pictures 
of others, and to the encouragement of decorative 
objects generally. His style as an engraver, 
judging by the work indisputably his own, is a 
curious blend of the Italian and Dutch. He has 
something of the grace and correctness of the 
former, something of the vigour and variety of 
the latter. But there is a hardness in his 
shadows, a dryness and lack of freedom in his 
line, which eventually led him to the experiment 
of adding colour, in the form of printing-ink, to 
his unsatisfactory engravings ; and the first few 
of these he printed himself. He was so pleased 
with the result, he saw such immense possibilities 
in the invention, that, on the premises of the 
College where he had in his time been so 
brilliant a pupil, and so successful a Professor, 
he founded a School, or Factory, for the execu- 
tion of copper-plate printing in colours, both 
of engravings, and for wall- hangings on linen 
or other fabric, after the model of the Roman 
Art Guild. 

Almost at the same time, as will be seen, 
Jakob Christoph Le Blon was experimenting in 



the same field. But Le Blon was producing his 
effects on the old chiaroscuro lines, though, of 
course, with very different results, because he 
engraved in mezzotint. That is to say, he was 
printing one plate over the other. Teyler, on 
the other hand, had struck out a line of his 
own, and he painted or inked his copper-plate 
once, and procured his complete impression by 
one printing from it ; which is the manner, with 
variations, finally adopted by the famous colour- 
printers of the eighteenth century. 

There are several curious points to be noted 
about the colour -work from the Nymegen 
factory. I say the work from the factory 
advisedly, as it is impossible to regard the 173 
specimens of engraving and colour-printing in 
Teyler's volume as the work of one man, especially 
as that very man held a Government appointment 
at that time, and was also writing a book on 
Military Architecture ! This book, quarto, and 
consisting of forty-one sheets, with a title-page 
engraved by B. Stoopendaal, was published at 
Rotterdam in 1697 ; and contains instructions as 
to calculating measurements for land-surveying 
and buildings by means of Algebra. Johannes 
Teyler was full of surprises, and well deserved 
his nickname of " Speculatie." But nothing is 
to be gained by ascribing to him more than he 
could possibly have achieved. 

The prints, then, that emanated from the 
Nymegen factory, although they in no way tend 
to change my opinion that colour only com- 



pletely serves a stipple-engraver, yet show very 
clearly the assistance which a chromo- printer 
can derive from an engraver who is working 
specially for his advantage. In some of the 
figures in this book, for instance, the difficulty 
in arriving at flesh-tint by line-work is met by 
an alteration in the method. The point of the 
graver is used, and a combination of the maniere 
criblee, dots and strokes, irregular and abrupt, 
with genuine stippling, is employed with con- 
siderable advantage to the engraving. The 
harshness is subdued, if not entirely overcome. 
That consummation was left for Bartolozzi to 
achieve ; Teyler had only an intuition as to 
where his invention would carry him, not an 
absolute knowledge. 

As it is unlikely the reader will come across 
this book of Johannes Teyler, for it is described 
as "unique" in Mullers Catalogue of Rare Books, 
published in Amsterdam in 1868, a fuller descrip- 
tion of it may be found of interest. 

The title in MS. is in an engraved border, 
printed in colours ; on the reverse of the title is 
a plate engraved in colours, with a medallion and 
the following inscription : — Quam nee Parrhasius 
palmatn carpsit, nee Apelles, Teilerus punciis atque 
colore tulit. Then follow 173 plates of various 
sizes, folio, quarto, or octavo, representing nine 
portraits (among others G. Kneller in folio, and 
two copies after Van Dyck ; eight after Zeghers 
and A. Stalbent), eleven views in Amsterdam, 
fifteen views in Rome, on the Rhine and else- 



where, ten flower pieces, thirty-four mythologi- 
cal and allegorical figures, thirteen Angels, four 
marine views, nine academical figures, four ana- 
tomical plates, thirty-four birds (among them two 
cocks, life-size), quadrupeds, three reptiles, etc. 
These prints are mounted on old Dutch paper 
of folio size. Only one plate bears a name, 
J. D. AvEELE, none of them a date. Among the 
plates are one portrait and an academical figure 
which seem to have been coloured by hand — 
possibly as a pattern. 

At the beginning of the book this notice in 
manuscript appears, written by one of the few 
descendants of Teyler : — 

This book, printed by Teyler, is not only rare, but abso- 
lutely unique. It is the only copy in existence, and its 
existence was unknown, having remained in the family of its 
author. Houbraken, Weyermann v.d. Willigen were only 
aware of a few engravings in chromotype. This collection is 
especially of inestimable value, since it proves in the clearest 
manner that chromotype with a single plate was in existence 
before 1700. 

This inscription, as will be seen, claims for 
the illustrious ancestor of the commentator the 
invention, the engraving, and the printing of the 
contents. But a certain discount may fairly be 
allowed for family pride, leaving Johannes Teyler 
still with the credit of his discovery : the dis- 
covery that it was possible to paint a copper- 
plate in coloured inks, in such a manner as to 
produce a coloured picture in one printing. All 
the rest followed naturally. 

65 F 


The method adopted for the colour-printing 
was the same in every one of these 173 engrav- 
ings. One of them, by the way, is in mezzotint, 
the majority are in line, and there are a few 
etchings. My own theory is that the volume 
was a specimen-book, and that it comprised not 
only the plates Teyler engraved himself, but all 
those he could borrow or purchase on which to 
try the colour-printing which had for him such 
an irresistible fascination. The special difference 
between his work and that of the eighteenth 
century is that he did not ground his plate. 

Roughly speaking, to ground a plate for colour- 
printing, means, inking it over entirely with 
one neutral tint, wiping it fairly closely, and 
then proceeding to colour. Teyler put his 
colour direct on his plate by means of printing 
balls, which, by the way, were suggested as a 
novelty fifty years later by Cochin when writing 
of Le Blon's work. The French printers called 
these printing balls " poupees." They were 
merely pieces of linen or material rolled tight, 
and tied in such a manner that they had a point 
which carried the ink, and they were used very 
much in the same way as a brush would be. 
Stumps and camel's - hair brushes, in lieu of 
printing balls, or as a supplement to them, were 
used by the later workmen, with an improved 
effect as far as delicacy and accuracy of touch 
are concerned. Most of the Downman prints, 
for instance, seem to have been done by the 



It would be very nearly impossible to get a 
good tone, or indeed any tone, in the proper 
sense of the word, into an eighteenth -century 
stipple-engraving without the use of this neutral 
ground of which I have spoken ; a white line of 
demarcation between the tints employed would 
be very apt to occur. Such white line, or lines, 
are certainly to be seen in nearly all the Teyler 
colour-prints. Still, though he employed neither 
retroussage nor graduated wiping, nor any of the 
delicate aids to shading which have combined to 
produce the miniature-like effect for which we 
look, it is only by means of a magnifying- 
glass, or by experiments conducted on a similar 
plan, that one can realise how little in concep- 
tion Teyler's methods differ from those of the 
eighteenth century. He was handicapped by 
the method of engraving, and by the absence of 
ground, yet in many ways he fell little short of 
eighteenth-century performances. 

In Teyler's book, for instance, there is a set of 
birds with plumage, notably a penguin, in which 
every delicate feather has been painted on the 
copper-plate by the printer in its special colour. 
And not only has this been done, but a trick, 
which is generally supposed to have been practised 
for the first time in the eighteenth-century work- 
shops, has been used to heighten the tints of the 
breast and bill. That is, whilst the ink was still 
wet in the lines of the engraving, and the plate 
slightly warm before being passed through the 
press, a little dry colour in powder has been 



dusted carefully in special places over the plate. 
This method of heightening the tint, generally 
a red one, may thus easily have been handed 
down by international tradition through the 
older printers, instead of having been invented, 
as was supposed, by the Mr. Gamble who 
claimed it as his own about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, along with many other 
inventions and improvements in colour-printing. 
Some of the work in this book by Johannes 
Teyler has been finished by hand ; it is a com- 
paratively very small portion and by far the 
worst. The pure colour-prints ; the birds, the 
flowers, and some of the classic figures, are per- 
fectly wonderful specimens of picture-engravings, 
and would do credit to any century. Johannes 
Teyler, therefore, may justly be acclaimed the 
Inventor of genuine colour-printing. 



Jakob Christoph Le Blon, his life and his invention of Colour- 
Printing mezzotints — His process described, and its evolution 
from Chiaroscuro traced — His influence on contemporary 
engravers — Coloritto. 

With the appearance of Jakob Christoph Le 
Blon the scene changes finally from Italy and 
Holland to England. That I might have arrived 
at my destination more easily perhaps, via France, 
I am well aware. But the history of colour- 
printing in France has been so well, and so 
recently, written by Baron Roger Portalis that I 
prefer to follow the story, once it has reached 
the year 1700, through the men more intimately 
concerned in establishing the art in this country, 
where it journeyed soon after it had met the 
stipple, and where it found its legitimate and 
final resting-place. 

But this meeting with the stipple was not yet. 
Another stage of the journey had to be passed 
through ; and this stage was the one made memor- 
able by the man whose name heads this chapter. 

It is not alone what Le Blon himself achieved 
in the domain of colour-printing that makes him 



of such paramount importance in the history of 
the art, but the impetus he gave to all the 
others. It may have been the personal fascina- 
tion of the man, with his brilliant Bohemianism, 
it may have been the strength of his character, 
it may have been only that the hour had struck 
for the establishment of colour-printing. What- 
ever the cause, there is no doubt Le Blon inspired 
his surroundings with so much enthusiasm, and 
so much eagerness, that he became the pioneer 
of a whole school, a school that branched off 
into by-paths, that sent its pupils into strange 
countries, working in strange directions, and 
gradually disseminating the art that was its 
raison d'etre throughout the whole of Europe. 

Le Blon stands out as a prominent figure 
at the end of the seventeenth century and the 
commencement of the eighteenth. In a sense 
he might be called the Robert Louis Steven- 
son of the engraving world, although, per- 
haps, in some ways William Morris was more 
immediately his prototype than Stevenson. A 
very slight character-study of Le Blon, how- 
ever, while showing the decorative desire 
of Morris and his wonderful contemporary 
influence, yet proves that the Frankfort colour- 
printer had nothing of the modern poet- 
decorator's steadiness and solidity, of his fine 
simplicity, breadth of sympathy, and power of 
work. Le Blon was all dash and invention, 
restlessness and spirit. He made his home in 
many countries, and was handicapped by cir- 



cumstances as the romantic enthusiast of Samoa 
was by health. The analogy between the long 
list of books of adventure that followed the pub- 
lication of Treasure Island and the long list of 
" Inventions " in colour-printing consequent on 
the publication of Coloritto, will appear im- 
mediately we consider the greatness of the 
contemporary enthusiasm aroused in both cases 
in relation to the net value of the artistic 

Le Blon was already past his first manhood 
when he came to London to introduce his 
colour-prints. He opened a studio, where he 
was surrounded by pupils and apprentices, a 
band of young disciples who subsequently spread 
his name and his methods both here and on the 
Continent. The D'Agotys and the L' Admirals, 
Pond and Knapton, Jackson and Elisha Kirkall, 
had no other inspiration than his, strengthened 
by the example of the early chiaroscurists, in 
achieving their widely diflferent results. And 
in their hands colour-printing rested, until the 
stipple, like a new illuminant, brought copper- 
plate chromo-printing to its final brilliancy and 

That Jakob Christoph Le Blon had genius, 
the subtle indefinable quality which cannot be 
transmitted to any disciple, is proved by even 
a superficial comparison of his work with that 
of any of his competitors, either contempo- 
rary or subsequent to the melancholy close of his 
tempestuous career. He obtained magnificent 



results, although everything he did was opposed 
to what we now feel is the essential spirit of 
successful colour-printing. That is to say, he 
engraved his plates, for colour, in mezzotint, 
and he employed three or more plates for each 
picture. The art was only brought to per- 
fection when both mezzotint and multi-printing 
were discarded. Yet nothing has ever been pro- 
duced in the way of picture-engraving to rival 
certain fruit pieces of Le Blon's. They are so 
astonishingly fine in their modelling, in their 
shading, in the general impression of bloom and 
richness and fragrance they convey, that, seeing 
them side by side with the very best prints in 
colours of fifty years later, it is impossible to 
deny the possession of genius to their producer. 

The artist's life was as varied and full of 
interest as his work. He had the misfortunes of 
his talents and the disappointments of his tem- 
perament. He was born in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main in 1 670. Teyler*s factory at Nymegen was 
then already established, and I cannot resist the 
conviction that some rumour of it must have 
reached Frankfort, of which a vague youthful 
reminiscence may have influenced Le Blon later, 
indirectly, perhaps unconsciously, in his desire to 
produce pictures by mechanical means. It is 
the more probable that this rumour had at least 
reached the ears of Le Blon's parents, since they 
were silk-mercers, and were employed in the 
manufacture of tapestry-hangings. The German 
keenness in matters of business is of no recent 



growth, and hints of a new covering for walls, of 
linen printed in colours, would have been of in- 
finite interest to these industrious old burghers. 
Doubtless, therefore, they discussed the new 
enterprise in their family circle, quoting it, per- 
haps, as an incentive to the flagging industry of 
their erratic son. Jakob was more than an 
erratic son ; he was unsatisfactory in many ways. 
The warehouse, high and gloomy, dusty and 
dull, repelled him. He played truant often, 
and when he was not playing truant he was 
playing pranks with the other apprentices. 

The elders were of the type immortalised by 
Rembrandt, heavy, worthy people, who could 
neither understand nor sympathise with vagrant 
moods and personal irregularities. Fortunately 
Konrad Meyer came to Frankfort while Jakob 
was still a lad. Konrad Meyer was a great 
painter and a great engraver in that little world 
to which Jakob already aspired, and when he 
encouraged the ''^fau/enzer^'' looked at his draw- 
ings with approval, and told him, in his guttural 
tongue, that " he ought to be a painter," the 
account books had no longer a chance. Jakob's 
idleness became a thing of the past, although it 
was pencil and brush, chalk and crayon, that 
absorbed him, whilst the gloomy old warehouse, 
the phlegmatic old parents, faded into the dim 
background of unconsidered things. 

But parental discipline was stricter two cen- 
turies ago than it is now, and in this case it was 
too strict for Jakob. He ran away from home 



before he was sixteen, and tramped to Zurich, 
having numerous adventures on the way. At 
Zurich he found that Konrad Meyer had not 
forgotten the idle apprentice, and was willing to 
find him employment, to give him incidental 
instruction. In Konrad Meyer's painting-room 
Jakob Christoph Le Blon received his first lessons 
in art, and took characteristic advantage of them. 
He had from his very earliest youth a singular 
manual skill, an aptitude and quickness of com- 
prehension that enabled him immediately to 
take special rank among his fellow - students. 
Once he had learnt the use of the graving-tool, 
he could fill in backgrounds, draw a drapery, and 
add ornamentation with equal facility. Konrad 
Meyer has left us nearly 900 plates in addition 
to his paintings, but it is not difficult to trace, in 
many of them, his wayward pupil's freedom of 
hand. It was the brush, and not the tool, that 
was Jakob Le Blon's first love, and it was as a 
painter, and not as an engraver, that he played 
the trick on his master which led to his leav- 
ing Zurich almost as abruptly as he had left 

Konrad Meyer had a great reputation in his 
native city as a portrait- painter, and was very 
jealous of his reputation and, naturally, of his 
clientele. Relations began to be strained between 
him and Jakob Le Blon very soon after the latter 
reached his adolescence. Jakob was too vivid, 
too prominent, too self-assertive, to please his 
autocratic and belauded master. Visitors to the 



studio took too much notice of the handsome 
young man. As for the ladies, they were no less 
indulgent to him at this period of his career 
than they were later, and, it may easily be 
believed, he was no less responsive. Still, it was 
not entirely to the fair sex he owed his banish- 
ment from Zurich, rather to his own miscon- 
duct. Konrad Meyer was taken ill, and his 
illness lasted through the autumn far into the 
winter, and it seemed as if the spring might 
appear before he would completely recover. 
Then rumours spread about, that his recovery 
was doubtful, that it was hopeless, that he had 
lost the use of his hands, that he had painted his 
last picture ; his obituary was spoken in Bier- 
gUrten and discussed at street corners. Le Blon's 
youthful impatience could not await the event, 
he engraved, and had printed, a card, of which 
the following is a fair translation : — 

Konrad Meyer has appointed his celebrated pupil, Jakob 
Christoph Le Blon, his successor. This talented young man 
is already familiar to visitors to the studio by his attention and 
amiability. Many of the engravings, so much admired, of the 
heads of leading citizens, owe their principal merit to him, and 
he has for some time supplemented his master's failing efforts 
with the brush. He will be at home to sitters between ten 
and four, and confidently asks and expects the patronage of the 

He seems to have been granted the coun- 
tenance he expected. Konrad Meyer, returning 
to his studio, found him engaged in painting the 
abundant figure of Frau Buergermeisterin Von 
Meyssens. The old man was not too much 



shaken by illness, nor too feeble of arm, to fall 
upon the aspiring artist with tongue and stick. 
Public opinion was all in his favour, and it seems 
that even Herr Buergermeister Von Meyssens 
was sympathetic, in his official, or perhaps in his 
marital, capacity. Jakob might have defended 
himself, but he preferred to leave Zurich. He 
had learnt all Konrad Meyer could teach, and he 
was ever of a roving nature. The old man lived 
a very short time after this episode ; he died in 
1689. But it was not Jakob Le Blon who suc- 
ceeded to his position in Zurich. 

Le Blon went back from Zurich to Frank- 
fort, but was dissatisfied with himself, or with 
his parents, with his neighbours who refused to 
recognise his talents, or with his painting, which 
always fell short of his conceptions. He went 
back for a short time to the factory, but he 
never acquired business habits, he never learned 
the necessity for keeping accounts. He only de- 
veloped the belief that he possessed the first by 
right of inheritance, and that the second was un- 
necessary : a belief that brought him nothing but 
misfortune. The factory was neither light enough 
nor beautiful enough for him. Once more he 
acted with precipitation. He left Frankfort 
abruptly, and went to Rome. There in 1 696, still 
in the prime of his early manhood, we find him 
studying painting under the famous Carlo Maratti, 
a master who taught him to appreciate the master- 
pieces of Italian art. Very quickly he fell under 
the influence of Guido Reni, the Carraccis, and 



Raphael, an influence of which we see the full 
effect later on. He copied assiduously, worked 
hard and strenuously during this period of his 
career, and nothing, for the moment, was heard 
of idleness or dissipation. Always, on the other 
hand, we hear of the friends he made, of the 
young men who followed him admiringly, and 
the old ones who found pleasure in his society ; 
always we hear of the wonderful personal fascina- 
tion, which nowadays we should call magnetism, 
attracting men of all ages, tastes, and dispositions. 

That he worked well is attested by the fact 
that he became as free with the etching-tool as 
he had been with the graver, and mastered the 
mystery of colour which, as he himself admitted, 
had eluded him in Switzerland. This knowledge 
he employed, strangely enough, considering the 
boldness of his modelling and the freedom of his 
hand, in miniature-painting. 

One of the valuable friends Le Blon made in 
Rome was Bonaventura Van Overbeck, painter, 
engraver, and author, to whom we owe many of 
these and subsequent details. So impressed was 
Overbeck with Le Blon, that he persuaded him to 
leave Maratti, and accompany him to Amsterdam, 
with a view to a career as a miniature-painter. 
There was never any difficulty in persuading Le 
Blon to a fresh move, and in 1702 we find him 
established in Amsterdam, already with a repu- 
tation among many sitters whose portraits he 
painted in miniature, and for whom he afterwards 
scraped mezzotint plates. 



It is impossible to overrate the importance 
of the next episode in Le Blon's career, for it 
changed the bright, gay, if restless, painter of 
Bohemian habit, into a man full of domestic 
anxieties, carrying always a burden for which 
his shoulders were unfitted. Amsterdam, with 
its dull phlegmatic people, was a strange place 
for adventures, the licentiousness of the Court 
being merely a tradition in the town. The line 
of demarcation was clearly defined between 
citizen and noble. Yet almost from the begin- 
ning Le Blon conquered the phlegm of the 
people, and overstepped the social barrier : all 
classes received him, all classes made much of 
him, while he passed his time with wine, 
women, and the many arts to which he was 
always applying his inventive mind. 

His handsome figure was well set off by 
the long coat with its wide sleeves and hip 
pockets, with flaps all elaborately frogged and 
braided, knee-breeches, silk stockings and buckled 
shoes. He wore a brown wig, parted in the 
middle, with long curls tied back in a fashion 
he had brought from Rome, and on which his 
three-cornered hat sat becomingly. His bon- 
homie^ his privileged air, his easy familiarity, his 
fine presence, seem to have worked havoc in the 
hearts of the impressionable Vrows who sat 
to him. Van Overbeck took a pride in the 
successes of his protege, and made him the hero 
of a song. Perhaps it was this song that lured 
in his direction the admiring glances of that shy 



young maiden, the Fraulein Amelia Van Over- 
beck, the only child of the house. However, 
once those admiring brown eyes had been raised, 
they could see nothing beyond the bold glances, 
the debonair figure, the handsome head of 
Monsieur Jakob. Nobody could blame the Herr 
Van Overbeck for objecting to any love affair 
between them. The miniature-painter had the 
finest qualities in the world as a boon companion ; 
he could make a merry night of it, drink his 
elders under the table, sing his song and tell his 
story till the morn, then go home with his 
head erect, steady on his feet, ready to chuck 
under the chin the first market-woman he might 
meet, and take toll of her for her industry and 
early rising. He could be content with four 
hours' sleep or less, start the morning with a 
bottle, and be ready for his first sitter before his 
overnight companions had realised their head- 
aches. He was the admiration of Amsterdam, 
but not only on account of his talents. The 
quantity of wine he could carry, and the number 
of women with whom he intrigued, excited the 
town. None of these qualities are such as to 
ensure domestic happiness, and Van Overbeck 
loved the child of his old age. He has painted 
her in a sitting attitude, her slender girlish hands 
folded on her lap, the high head-dress out of all 
proportion to the slight young figure. Her 
dress is of some white material, duller than 
satin, with two flounces wide and full ; her 
bodice is of velvet, cut square and laced across 



the white chemisette down to the pointed waist. 
The small pale face with its delicate features, 
seems to have in it nothing of strength or deter- 
mination or passion, the brown eyes are half 
frightened, half shy, the lips thin, uncertain, 
puckered a little. She looks a child, and a weak 
one. Yet that child, looking so quaint against 
the background of embroidered curtain, with all 
the richly decorated and elaborate accessories, had 
strength enough to turn the current of a man's 
life, and power enough to wreck his career. 

Who was the pursuer and who the pursued 
is of no moment. Only we hear that Le Blon 
made nothing of barred doors and bolted win- 
dows. Though the maiden was shut up in her 
father's house and apparently could only see her 
lover through the high narrow windows, Van 
Overbeck discovered that they still met. Later, 
he learned that no precautions were sufficient to 
keep two lovers apart when the lady was more 
than willing, and the gentleman had a reputa- 
tion for gallantry to sustain. Scandal ran freely 
through that flat and dyke -cut country. It 
buzzed unrestrained about Van Overbeck's heavy 
oak door. Finally it drove the child through 
church portals into Le Blon's arms. 

It was to the influence of Amelia Van Over- 
beck that his friends attributed the outburst of 
extravagance in living, the decline of sitters, 
the gradual reverse from popularity and good 
fortune. Le Blon was too proud to ask assistance 
of the father-in-law who had rejected him, 



Amelia was too jealous of the husband she 
had won with such difficulty to encourage or 
assist him in obtaining fresh patrons. Trouble 
of all varieties followed the marriage, and Van 
Overbeck made no sign of reconciliation. 

It was in 1704 that Le Blon issued his first 
picture-engraving. He was overwhelmed at the 
time with money anxieties, with the exactions of 
a spoilt and extravagant wife, unhappy amid her 
new surroundings. Misfortune aroused his spirit 
and stimulated his inventiveness. 

If he might no longer paint portraits of the 
stout Dutch ladies who excited his wife's jealousy, 
then he would reproduce the works of the great 
Masters who had enthralled him in Italy, he 
would bring Art, the Art that was greater than 
his own, within the reach of these burgesses 
who were shunning his studio. Once the idea 
flashed across his mind, he pursued it with that 
overpowering energy which was characteristic 
of him in his middle age as in his youth. He 
convinced himself that the interpretation of the 
old Masters by engraving only required colour 
to make it more than popular, to make it, in 
fact, a necessity. He forgot his domestic worries 
in the pursuance of the idea. As an engraver 
he felt he could call no man his master. Now 
the desire to be also a printer, and to do his 
printing in colours, so that he might translate, 
as it were, not only the spirit, but the vision, of 
his Italian idols, became suddenly an absorbing 
passion with him. This was his fine aspiration, 

81 G 


although he tried to persuade publishers that his 
object was purely commercial ; everywhere he 
said there was a fortune in the idea, always he 
was experimenting for its accomplishment. 

From all that is known of Le Blon, it is im- 
possible to believe that the commercial aspect 
of the venture presented itself to his mind when 
he was actually employed in reproducing the 
pictures which had enraptured his boyhood. 
The artist in him was always dominant. Of 
course, in the excitement of the new scheme he 
lost what little remained to him of his practice 
as a miniature-painter. Then his wife found 
that her old friends held aloof, and her jealous 
temper made it impossible for her to attract new 
ones. Nor was she content that Le Blon should 
gather round him the companions who had 
hitherto thronged the studio. In the end she 
made him leave Amsterdam. 

From the day of his marriage in 1702 to the 
day of his death in Paris in 1741 ill-luck never 
deserted him. He was always in debt and always 
in difficulties. He was never free from conten- 
tion with a wife of peevish temper, brought up 
in the midst of a luxury he was unable to give 
her, spoilt and indulged from her babyhood, as 
overbearing as her father, but without his intel- 
ligence ; selfish and exacting. Le Blon took 
her away from Amsterdam in 1706, when her 
father died without having forgiven either of 
them. They wandered, unhappily enough, about 
the Continent for some time, Le Blon always 



experimenting to perfect colour-printing, always 
making friends whom she quickly lost for him, 
always on the eve of winning a fortune which 
never came. 

It was in 1720 that he arrived in London, set 
up a studio, advertised his invention, and won 
the appreciation and renown which brought him 
everything but cash. 

Among Le Blon's ventures in the exploitation 
of the new art was the promotion of a company 
for the engraving of pictures to be sold at cheap 
rates, the manufacture of woven tapestries, and 
for printed paper-hangings, all in colours, such 
as were then imported only from Brabant. In 
this enterprise he had the active support of some 
very influential personages, among whom were : 
Colonel Sir John Guise, who, a few years later, 
distinguished himself so valorously in the dis- 
astrous expedition against Carthagena ; General 
Lord Carpenter, the gallant dragoon leader, who 
had taken so prominent a part in suppressing the 
171 5 rebellion, and had succeeded the Duke of 
Argyll in command of the forces in Scotland ; 
Lord Hunsdon, Lord Percival, and that noble 
connoisseur's relative and constant correspondent, 
David Dering. 

Of these. Lord Percival, the friend not only of 
Pope and Bishop Berkeley, but of all the artists 
and literati of the day, appears to have given 
the most practical encouragement to the venture, 
and several references to the " Picture Office," 
as it was called, are to be found in his corrc- 



spondence. He had always taken interest in 
the art of engraving, and had some years previ- 
ously gratified the Grand Duke of Saxony by the 
gift of a book of John Smith's mezzotints. His 
letters give evidence that he thought very highly 
of Le Blon's colour-printing and its future. He 
presented some specimens to his brother Philip 
Percival, the Member of Parliament, who ex- 
pressed himself delighted with them, and com- 
missioned others. The bill for these which 
Lord Percival forwarded to his brother shows in 
detail the subjects of the prints which the Picture 
Office was turning out and the prices charged. 

" Two children, hand unknown, i os. ; Rebecca, 
after Caretch {sic), 12s. ; Susanna, after Picairi, 
I2S. ; Magdalene, after Caratch, los. ; Holy 
Family, after Baroccio, 15s. ; Virgin, after 
Raphael, 1 5s." Lord Percival writes : — " The 
Office has since put out a St. Catherine, after 
Correggio, and our Saviour and St. John the 
Baptist, after Vandyke," and adds, with a gener- 
ous burst of enthusiasm, " Our modern painters 
can't come near it [Le Blon's invention] with 
their colours, and if they attempt a copy, make 
us pay as many guineas as now we give shillings." 

But the course of true art does not always 
run smooth, especially when it is run as a busi- 
ness by unbusinesslike persons. On the 27th 
March 1722 Lord Percival writes : 

" The Picture project has suffered under a 
great deal of mismanagement, but yet improves 



Next we hear of distrust and dissatisfaction 
amongst the shareholders, who demand a General 
Meeting, very much as nineteenth-century share- 
holders would do. Of this meeting we have a 
detailed description written by David Dering 
to Lord Percival. The gathering numbered 
fully fifty, and the chair was taken by the gallant 
Colonel, Sir John Guise, whose position can 
scarcely have been a sinecure. During the 
reading of an account of the Company's history, 
which cast several reflections upon Le Blon, 
who, by the way, is referred to indifferently as 
Le Blon, and Le Bland, the off^ended engraver 
constantly interrupted the proceedings, crying 
emphatically, " ye declare que cela est faux.'' 

But the inexorable logic of figures was not to 
be gainsaid. Under Le Blon's direction, accord- 
ing to the Manager's " Paper of Facts," £s^^'^ 
had been expended in producing 4000 prints, 
which, if all were sold at the prices fixed, 
would involve the Company in a loss of ^2000. 
Whereas, under the management of a man named 
Guine, temporarily appointed by the directors, 
an expenditure of jTaooo had in ten months 
produced 5000 pictures, which, if sold as they 
were priced, ought to render a profit of ^1600. 

Evidently the original Company had been 
already re- organised, and this M. Guine had 
introduced a new method which seemed to 
promise quicker and more profitable returns than 
Le Blon's ; for the Managers, or Directors as 
we should call them, estimated that with the 



new method, 14,000 prints ought to be taken 
from the twenty-five plates then in being, and 
together with the 5000 already produced, these 
should, if all sold, bring in jT 12,000. 

Up to date, however, the accounts showed 
that the Company had sold not more than ^600 
worth of prints, and it is permissible to suppose 
that these were produced by Le Blon, the 
originator of the enterprise. As to the tapestry- 
weaving branch of the venture, the Company 

had spent jC95°' ^"^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^7 ^^^ ^° 
show was a woven child's head and a piece of 
silk which would yield about ^£30. Clearly 
the Picture Office was not a very flourishing 
concern, and notwithstanding all the resources 
of his inventive powers Le Blon could hardly 
hope to convince even his aristocratic supporters 
that a balance on the wrong side was necessary 
to prove his artistic success. 

The failure of the Picture Office was followed 
by the bankruptcy of Le Blon. And this was 
only the beginning of his misfortunes in England ; 
misfortunes to which no harsher name need be 
applied. They were not due to dishonesty or 
want of industry, but possibly to a certain 
extravagance in living, and an insurmountable 
hopefulness and belief in himself. 

His career in England was one of disappoint- 
ment and disaster. Yet always where he moved 
satellites circled round him. Call them friends, 
call them pupils, call them what one will, 
wherever Le Blon was, there were the men, 



hanging on his words, copying his work, dogging 
his steps, eager for his praise. 

After the factory had failed Le Blon wrote a 
book, or treatise, on his invention. He called it 
Coloritto, dedicated it to Sir Robert Walpole, and 
published it in French and English, together 
with a dozen examples of mezzotint in colours. 
Even Walpole's name was not sufficient to sell 
the book, and finally Le Blon fled to Paris to 
escape his creditors, dying there, very poor but 
never miserable, in 1741, leaving behind him 
half a hundred imitators, and the printing in 
colours from copper-plate engraving as an estab- 
lished industry. 

That he had genius is suggested by the work 
he has left ; that he worked on the wrong lines 
is proved by the superior results obtained by men 
who hardly possessed talent. 

The formula of Coloritto is as follows : — 

There are only three primitive colours. By mixing these 
three in various proportions all the others and their various 
shades can be obtained. They can also be compounded so as 
to destroy each other and produce black. In order to procure 
engravings in colour, it is, therefore, only necessary to engrave 
three plates for successive printings for each picture according 
to a previously prepared colour-scheme or plan. 

It is interesting to note here that this 
principle, carried to its legitimate and ultimate 
conclusion, is the one actually in use to-day, 
and most successfully employed by Mr. Carl 
Hentschel in his " Three - Colour Printing 
Factory." Except that the plates are pre- 



pared by " process," instead of being engraved, 
and the colour-scheme being obtained by photo- 
graphy, and considerably simplified to meet 
modern requirements of speed and cheapness, 
Le Blon's instructions for printing in colours are 
almost accurately followed in Mr. Hentschel's 

Le Blon's book goes on to explain that, after 
a plan has been made of the painting to be 
imitated, showing where the presence of the 
three simple colours is necessary, another should 
be made giving the proper outlines and the 
degrees of strength, that the three plates ought 
to be engraved to correspond with the second 
plan, so that they should print each of the 
three colours separately exactly on the places 
where they are wanted, and in the right propor- 
tion. The register must be exact. 

Le Blon laid stress upon the importance of 
using only transparent colours, and this difficulty, 
which he himself had experienced from the 
beginning, he always considered the most in- 
superable, because, though Prussian blue and 
lake, for instance, were colours sufficiently 
transparent for his purpose, there did not exist 
a transparent yellow, and he experimented con- 
stantly, but without success, in the hopes of find- 
ing one. He insisted upon the blue being light 
in the pigment, as otherwise it was too over- 
powering, and he advised that all three colours 
should be as bright as possible. He thought 
that mezzotint engravings were more suited than 



any other to be printed in colours, and gave 
various unconvincing reasons for his belief. 
The multiplicity of plates was also a part of 
his creed ; and during the latter part of his stay 
in England he used four, and sometimes even 
five, to get certain effects of shade and high 
lights, with the transparency already alluded to. 
His principle was still that of the old cameo, or 
chiaroscuro, printing. 

His own method of preparing his plates was 
as follows : 

The three copper-plates were first accurately 
fitted the one over the other ; they were all 
three grounded, or rocked, with the same care 
and thoroughness as if a complete mezzotint 
engraving had to be scraped on each one. On 
three papers, of the same size as the plates, were 
then sketched the places for the three primitive 
colours in accordance with the plan already pre- 
pared, and tracings from these papers were 
rubbed on to the plates, and all the parts of each 
plate that were not to convey a particular colour 
were scraped and burnished as in working for 
the high lights in an ordinary mezzotint. The 
parts that were to convey the colour were after- 
wards worked upon, and, where the higher lights 
were to be, the grain of the ground was again 
scraped away ; where full colour was wanted the 
ground was left untouched. Constant reference 
was made to the colour-scheme, and the scraping 
was resorted to, or the ground left, according as 
the combination was wanted in depths ; to produce 



orange or purple ; or to diminish to brown 
or grey, or merely to shades of different degrees. 
Although the greater part of the engraving was 
done in mezzotint, the graver was used for 
strengthening shades and correcting outlines. 
Sometimes two plates were used for the same 
colour in order to produce a stronger effect, and 
this second plate was always grained with the 
berceau, a steel instrument with almost imper- 
ceptible teeth, finer than that usually employed 
for mezzotint ; the second plate was also found 
useful for glazing and softening the colours. As 
to the order of the printing, the least important 
colour was used first and the most important 
colour last. 

It will be seen that this complicated and 
lengthy process necessitated engraver and printer 
working together. As a matter of fact, both 
with Le Blon and his pupils, the engraver 
printed his own work, at least, until a perfect 
proof was obtained. In the hands of inferior 
engravers Le Blon's process gave rise to so 
many disappointments, that the efforts of all 
the engravers and print -publishers of the day, 
who envied him his results, were concentrated 
on the search for simpler methods of printing 
in colours. It was this that led to the open- 
armed reception of the single printing of copper- 
plate stipple - prints, as will be seen almost 

Nobody has ever approached Le Blon's 
coloured mezzotint work in brilliancy, softness, 



or richness of effect. Colour-printing in the 
manner of Le Blon needed brains, artistic feel- 
ing, all the knowledge that he had acquired in 
his laborious days in Italy, and, above all, just 
that touch of genius which lifts his work out 
of the region where art criticism sets up a 
narrow-minded and academic opposition to the 
colour-printing of engravings. 

It is an axiom with men who write about 
art that any endeavour to perpetuate the works 
of the great Masters by engraving is legitimate 
only when it is a translation and not an imita- 
tion ; that, through painful efforts at chromatic 
similitude, the print loses its picturesque charac- 
teristics, without acquiring others, and if it gains 
at all in richness, it loses considerably more in 

So wrote Charles Blanc in his Grammaire des 
Arts de Dessin, but, by not making an exception 
in favour of the work of Jakob Christoph Le 
Blon, it seems to me he allowed prejudice to 
outweigh evidence. 



Le Blon's influence at work — Colour-Printing in England in the 
first half of the eighteenth century — Elisha Kirkall — Jakob and 
Jan L'Admiral — The Gautier D'Agotys — John Skippe — Pond 
and Knapton — John Baptist Jackson, the last of the experi- 

The impetus given by Le Blon proved strong and 
lasting. The first fifty years of the eighteenth 
century saw numberless attempts at colour-print- 
ing both for fabrics and for engravings. Aqua- 
tint was struggling through its delicate infancy 
and was tentatively used in light washes. Metal 
plates in combination with wood-blocks, multi- 
printing from both or either, line engraving with 
faces and hands in coloured inks, mezzotints 
printed in shades of green and orange, were 
amongst the experiments made. 

But all this amounted to little more than an 
unsuccessful wooing of an elusive spirit. Le 
Blon's success was personal, and proved nothing 
but his own greatness. The strange adventures 
of colour-printing and engraving were not to 
find a happy ending until the stipple joined their 
hands under the protecting segis of Bartolozzi. 
Nevertheless some of these adventures were suffi- 



ciently important and interesting to merit narra- 
tion. There were among the earlier English 
colour-printers of the eighteenth century a few 
men whose names cannot be omitted in consider- 
ing the genesis of the art. The most notable of 
these was Elisha Kirkall, the least valuable was 
John Skippe. 

Elisha Kirkall was born in Sheffield. He 
was the son of a locksmith, and taught himself 
engraving on arms and metal-plates, under very 
much the same conditions that inspired the six- 
teenth-century niello- workers. He married 
before he was out of his apprenticeship, and 
apparently without waiting for the parental 
sanction. Under the circumstances it became 
necessary for him to leave Sheffield and venture 
into the Metropolis to seek his fortune. But, 
although without the parental consent, this 
marriage proved a fortunate one for young 
Kirkall. His trade-card, dated 1707, has his 
wife's name in addition to his own, and she 
seems to have assisted him in the business part 
of his life. This trade -card, by the way, is 
printed from a wood-block, but the receipt form 
used by the Kirkalls is from a metal -plate. 
Elisha soon gave up engraving in relief and 
became an admirable mezzotinter. It was in 
this manner that he executed and published 
sixteen views of shipping after W. Van de Velde 
the younger. He printed them mostly in green 
ink, with a few in various shades of yellow 
and brown. He also pirated " The Harlot's 



Progress " after Hogarth, and issued it in green 
mezzotint. The engraving, however, is not up 
to the standard of Kirkall's later w^ork. Just at 
this time he hit accidentally on the discovery 
that a copper-plate could be inked in two colours 
and a picture produced by one printing from it. 
A beautiful engraving after Van Huysum, which 
he brought out in 1724, is printed in a light 
sepia, but has the sky and background in blue. 
The strange thing about this is that it evidently 
did not please the taste of the town, for all the 
later issues of the plate are in monochrome, 
finished by a superimposed wood-block for the 
half-tones and high lights. A very interesting 
comparison can be made between the two effects, 
a comparison considerably in favour of the first 
effort. But that he preferred what his customers 
preferred, namely the chiaroscuro printing, must 
be gathered from the result. All his later colour- 
work is done in this manner, the invention of 
which I have ascribed to Ugo da Carpi, but, of 
course, with considerable variations from the 
Italian methods. Kirkall's work is a combina- 
tion of etching and mezzotint on metal-plate 
with wood-blocks for printing over ; the out- 
lines and the darker parts are engraved on copper, 
and the half-tones are put in as washes by wood. 
He reproduced " JEnea.s and Anchises," after 
Raphael, from Ugo da Carpi's impression of the 
same subject, and many other pictures. Had he 
been as excellent a wood-engraver as he was a 
mezzotinter, he would have obtained better 



results. As it was, the over-printings coarsened 
and vulgarised his fine work, and injured a 
reputation which, had it depended upon his 
engraving and not upon his colour-printing, 
would have given him rank by the side of 
Finlayson and John Smith. 

That Kirkall had a considerable contemporary 
repute, however, is proved by mention of him in 
the " Dunciad " : — 

F'air as before her works she stands coiifess'd, 
In flowers o' pearls by bounteous Kirkall dress'd. 

This was written sarcastically of Eliza Haywood, 
the libellous novelist, who antedated the " New 
Woman " in being no credit to her own or any 
other sex, and who is supposed to have supplied 
gentle Fanny Burney with the outline of Betty 
Thoughtless. The allusion in the " Dunciad " is 
to the frontispiece engraved for a volume of 
poems, and " bounteous " refers to the jewellery 
and ornament with which Kirkall plentifully 
besprinkled the plain and uninteresting figure 
in the design. 

Jakob and Jan L'Admiral were brothers, 
born at Leyden but of French parentage. When 
Le Blon's factory schemes came to naught, and, 
disaster threatening that generous open-hearted 
master, he fled to France under a cloud of 
domestic and pecuniary embarrassments, these 
two pupils of his deserted the sinking ship, and 
scuttled back to Amsterdam, where Jakob, ap- 
propriately enough, engraved insects ; and Jan 



did the portraits for Van Mander's Livre des 
Peintres. He also published a pamphlet on 
colour-printing, chiefly stolen from Le Blon's 
Color it to, but carefully avoiding mention of that 
artist's name. He executed in colour some 
appalling anatomical prints, in which the hid- 
eous crudeness of the pigments added to the 
natural gruesomeness of the subjects. But the 
register was exact and the work clean and care- 
ful. Frederic Ruysch employed him largely. 

Then there were the Gautier D'Agotys, 
father and son. Jacques Fabian Gautier D'Agoty 
was painter, engraver, author, anatomist, and 
scientist. When Le Blon was endeavouring to 
carry on his business of colour-printing in Paris, 
Gautier D'Agoty went to him as assistant, but 
when, worn out with the struggle of life, Le 
Blon died, the whilom assistant stole his master's 
patents, and claimed the credit for all his later 
work. Not satisfied with the verbal assumption 
and the pecuniary result of his dishonesty, he 
issued a pamphlet positively claiming to be the 
inventor of all that had cost Le Blon his laborious 
years. A paragraph from his pamphlet runs — 

Jakob Christoph Le Blon does not deserve the title of in- 
ventor absurdly bestowed upon him by his pupils. I am the 
inventor, or at least the reviver, or the restorer, of the art of 
colour-printing, which, but for me, would have died out, and 
those who produce coloured engravings by successive printings 
from metal plates are my pupils and not those of Le Blon. 

He then proceeded to stultify his declaration by 
the crudity of his issues, and though he used the 



burin more freely than did his despised master, 
he made less effect with it. His son, Edouard 
Gautier D'Agoty, was a finer engraver than 
his father. In the prints attributed to, or 
signed by, the younger man, there is a greater 
softness in the shadows, and considerably more 
delicacy in the colouring. In the portrait of 
him mezzotinted by Carlo Lasinio, and printed 
in colours, he appears handsome but weak, a tall 
and graceful figure, habited in a green painting- 
blouse, open at the neck, with a white linen 
shirt and collar. This print is sometimes found 
with the inscription altered to make it appear 
that it was engraved by D'Agoty himself. 

The L'Admirals and the D'Agotys worked 
abroad. Debucourt, Janinet and Descourtis, 
Sergent and Alix, probably derived from them 
the inspiration for their beautiful multi-printed 
aquatints, and the results of this inspiration, 
like the pitying tear of the Recording Angel, 
may serve to blot out some of the sins against 
taste and honesty of Jacques Fabian Gautier 

John Skippe was a gentleman, and an amateur 
artist of some contemporary renown. He pro- 
duced chiaroscuros after Raphael, Correggio, and 
Parmigiano in a manner combining the succes- 
sive wood-blocks of Ugo da Carpi, with the 
colour -mingling of Le Blon. But the results 
show more of the amateur and the gentleman 
than the artist, and neither his engraving nor his 
colour-printing entitles him to professional rank. 

97 H 


Pond and Knapton, two men who worked 
together between 1730 and 1750, were much 
more important, and they got considerably nearer 
to the desired ideal. 

Pond, who was educated in London, had the 
advantage of a foreign tour in company with 
Roubiliac. He started as a portrait-painter on 
his return from Rome, and was accorded the 
rare privilege of a sitting from Pope. Peg 
Woffington also favoured him, and the result is 
in the National Gallery. The picture does 
not make one particularly regretful that Pond 
speedily abandoned portrait-painting for engrav- 
ing. The portrait-sketch of himself, etched and 
colour-printed, probably by one of the Knaptons, 
but unsigned, shows a strong young face with 
a square chin and level brows. He wears the 
close cap, completely hiding the hair, that was 
known as the apprentice's cap. It is a very 
interesting head, full of character, well drawn 
and modelled. When he finally abandoned the 
brush for the etching-point, it was because he 
had the same ambition as Le Blon, he wanted to 
reproduce the works of the Italian Masters. 
But it was rather their drawings than their 
paintings on which he set his more limited 
ambitions. He was his own publisher, and 
brought out a series of these imitations in 1734. 
He collaborated with George Knapton in the 
publication of " The Heads of Illustrious Per- 
sons," by Houbraken and Vertue, and he issued 
these in connection with biographies from the 



pen of Dr. Birch. He also did a series of cari- 
catures after Cavaliere Ghezzi, and published 
them under the title " Eccentric Characters." 
These were deservedly reprinted, and repub- 
lished, early in the last century. Pond was 
elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1752, 
but died shortly after he had attained that 
honour. His collection of original drawings by 
the Old Masters was sold by auction and fetched 
^(^1400. In the majority of his plates the lines 
are etched, and washed in colour, a species of 
aquatint without ground. They were often 
printed in green, the apparently inevitable super- 
imposed wood-block carrying the colour. A soft- 
ground etching of a head by Guercino, taken off 
in red, is interesting as showing the existence of 
a " chalk manner " in England before its so- 
called introduction by Ryland. This soft-ground 
etching was also used by Pond with complete 
success for some imitations of drawings after 
Carracci and Carlo Maratti. 

Charles Knapton, brother to George, who 
was in partnership with Pond as far as the pro- 
duction and sale of engravings were concerned, 
was the pupil of Jonathan Richardson, and, 
before he entered into the collaboration that 
brought him name and fortune, had been em- 
ployed in drawing portraits in crayons of city 
merchants and their plump wives. There was 
no sale for these buxom dames when engraved, 
and no public beyond their own small circle, 
so he was very glad to relinquish his crayon 



sketches and join Pond in bringing out his series 
of prints. Pond had already won a reputation 
as an engraver ; Charles Knapton speedily made 
his. Twenty-seven of the Guercino landscapes 
are his work, and they are very creditable per- 
formances. The association with Pond seems 
not only to have taught him much, but to have 
inspired him with the ambition to learn more. 
He ultimately withdrew from the partnership 
with Arthur Pond, and although he was then 
almost middle-aged, went to Rome to study 
painting ! Perhaps the drawings of the great 
Masters which he had copied, and the stories 
of their magnificence told him by Pond, had 
inspired his imagination. Any way, he studied 
in Rome to such good purpose that, after his 
return, he was appointed Painter to the Dilet- 
tante Society. He was already nearly sixty, but 
he seems to have pleased both his sitters and the 
public, for, after the death of Slaughter, he was 
offered, and accepted, the post of Surveyor and 
Keeper of the King's Pictures. A picture by 
this painter when he was far advanced in years 
is now at Hampton Court. It represents the 
widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales, with her 
family. In this picture George III. appears as 
a very thin and attractive boy, and that strong- 
minded mother of his has the most convincing air 
of simplicity and innocence. There is no Earl of 
Bute in the background. Perhaps it is not surpris- 
ing that this picture was hung in a place of honour, 
so far exceeding its deserts as a work of art. 



John Baptist Jackson was the last of the 
idealists who dreamed of a perfect process for 
colour-printing engravings before that perfection 
was obtained by means which had eluded even 
the most imaginative and best engravers of the 
last three centuries ; Johannes Teyler having 
been alone in his metier, 

Jackson was a very capable wood-engraver, 
and he had the inveterate habit of the early 
colour-printers of claiming to be the inventor of 
all that they annexed. His life was almost as 
adventurous as Le Blon's, although the introduc- 
tion of the female element came very late, and 
apparently had little influence on his life or his 
works. He was born in London in 1701, and 
died in an Asylum in Scotland in 1780. The 
interval was filled by wanderings in Paris and in 
Rome, in Vienna and again in London. All the 
milestones in his journey towards that Asylum 
were marked by pain and disappointment. He 
started as a pupil of Kirkall, with whom he 
worked conjointly on the wood -engravings in 
Croxall's edition of /Esop's Fables. Some cuts in 
the 171 3 edition oi'Drydens Poems bear Jackson's 
initials, and show his precocity and early talent. 
Why he went to Paris it is difficult to say. 
Papillon tells us it was because he was unable to 
find work in London, but this seems hard to 
believe. Any way, he had the misfortune, per- 
haps the greatest misfortune that could have 
happened to him, to be taken into Papillon's 
workshop as pupil or assistant. That curious 


chronicler of engraving gossip, the man who 
gave us the Cunios, and many other stories much 
more doubtful, quarrelled with Jackson over a 
commission. Only one side of the dispute is on 
record. Papillon says : — 

He called on me and asked for work. I gave him a few 
things to execute to afford him the means of subsistence. He 
repaid me with ingratitude, made a duplicate of a flower orna- 
ment of my drawing, which he offered, before delivering me 
the block, to the person for whom it was engraved. 

Whether the price at which he offered it was 
lower than that which Papillon would have 
charged, or whether the grievance existed in the 
exhibition of skill equal to his master's, the 
writer does not explain ; but he says that he 
turned him out of his workshop forthwith. 
Jackson, who was at least as good a wood- 
engraver as Papillon, found it very difficult 
to get a living in Paris, owing to Papillon's 
relentless dislike and opposition. Even before 
the latter had published his Histoire de Gravure 
en Bois, in which he openly stigmatises the 
English workman as lazy, incompetent, and 
dishonest, he had freely made it understood 
among the printers, booksellers, and artists 
who employed him, that he would neither 
work in combination with John Baptist Jackson 
nor execute commissions for any one who gave 
them also to his formidable rival. Jackson's 
position was a difficult one, — it became more 
than difficult, it became precarious, and lastly 
impossible. He made a long and gallant 



struggle against an unscrupulous and powerful 
enemy. All the enmity seems to have been 
on Papillon's side, which in itself is evidence 
that it was rather trivial jealousy than righteous 
indignation that moved the historian, for it is a 
truism, not confined to the eighteenth century, 
that we hate more bitterly the man we have 
injured than the man who has injured us. 

Jackson worked at this time for the poorer 
booksellers, and it must be admitted that some 
of the woodcuts he executed in Paris deserved 
the strictures that have been passed upon them : 
they are small, insignificant subjects, hurriedly 
cut, for ornament as often as for illustration. 
But the pay was wretched, we have Papillon's 
word for that, for, with the peculiarity that 
presently became eccentricity, and ultimately 
lunacy, he complained that this unfortunate 
workman, whom he had driven out of the field 
where his talents might have had fair play, 
lowered the prices of engravings, and thus 
injured the reputation of artists like himself ! 
It is a singular coincidence that both Jackson 
and Papillon died insane. 

The struggle for existence, the privation, 
almost the starvation, which finally drove Jackson 
from Paris, lasted through five long years. They 
were just those years so important in a young 
man's life, when boyhood passes definitely into 
manhood, and all the luminous hopes and 
ambitions of youth are crystallised into the solid 
happiness of successful work. Papillon, with 



his cold and biting words, his well-directed 
venom, had effectually blighted that growth, 
and it is not to be wondered at, if that same 
blight, passing also over a scarce-grown character, 
left it somewhat stunted and withered. 

It was a tired and disappointed man that 
arrived in Rome in 1731, and, although Jackson 
found friends there and appreciation, he never 
fully recovered the cold of those years, from 
twenty-five to thirty, in which the sap of hope 
had dried slowly in his veins. It was his mind 
rather than his work that was affected. He was 
always looking for the slights that he did not 
receive, for the contempt that he had not 
deserved. He grew aggressive in his own 
defence, fighting shadows, he blundered against 
the simplest obstructions. It is necessary 
perhaps to follow his career very closely to 
perceive all this, but to those who are interested 
in looking for it, I would suggest a comparison 
between his work at sixteen years of age and his 
work at thirty. Soured and bitter and unrecep- 
tive, Rome yielded him little more than Paris 
had done. Like the child who has been un- 
justly treated, he distrusted the friendship that 
was offered to him, and, sulking in his discon- 
tented corner, he estranged the sympathy for 
which he inwardly craved. From Rome he 
went to Venice. In Venice the happiest part 
of his life was passed. Here he met his wife, 
here he began again to do good work, and 
he obtained the pecuniary recognition that now 



said more to him than mere words of praise. 
He engraved the really remarkable title-page 
of the Italian translation of Suetonius' Lives of 
the Ccesars. And it was at Venice he was bitten 
with the colour-printing mania. Wonderful 
was the fascination that this idea had always 
over its votaries ; it fastened on them with all 
the agreeable intensity of a vice, and no engraver 
who had fallen under the charm of colour had 
ever gone back contentedly to his monotonous 
work in black and white. There is no instance 
on record of such a backsliding, or perhaps it 
would be better, in view of the various opinions, 
to say of such a return. Kirkall, perhaps, made 
the longest step in that direction when, from 
painting his plate in two colours, he retrograded 
to simple chiaroscuro. 

Once colour had captured his senses, Jackson 
remained faithful to his new mistress for the 
rest of his life. I like to think that his days 
were brightened by the intercourse, and that, 
when she took up her permanent abode with 
him, the worst of his distresses and disappoint- 
ments were over. It pleases me to believe that 
in those last sad days passed in the Asylum near 
the Teviot, that obscured mind, that darkening 
intellect, saw brilliant pictures, long after the 
futile hand had lost the power of creating 

In the essay or pamphlet he published some 
years after he had left Venice, on The Invention 
of Engraving and Printing in Chiaroscuro^ Jackson 



accurately followed the pioneer track of Ugo da 
Carpi. He wrote that an art recovered, is little 
less than an art invented, and, as the art of 
chiaroscuro-printing had been in abeyance for 
two centuries, he thinks he might, with justice, 
claim to be its inventor. But of course this 
claim was absurd. Having always been granted 
less than he deserved, he now claimed more. 
Chiaroscuro had never died out. In addition to 
Le Blon's mezzotints, which, perhaps, owing to 
their having been executed in this manner on 
metal instead of on wood, Jackson did not reckon 
under their legitimate head, Beccafumi, in his 
energetic and vigorous, brutal, almost savage 
strength, had established chiaroscuro-engraving 
at the end of the sixteenth century : Christoffel 
Jegher, Goltzius, and Coriolanus had practised it 
in the seventeenth century ; and Nicolas Lesueur 
in the eighteenth, whilst the Englishmen already 
mentioned had carried on without a break the 
traditions of Da Carpi. 

What John Baptist Jackson really did was to 
use eight or ten blocks where Da Carpi used 
three or four, employing a proportionate number 
of tints. As a matter of fact, however, Le Blon, 
rather than Da Carpi, was the genuine source 
of his inspiration. But he had apparently the 
same shrinking from admitting Le Blon's claims 
that had twisted the acknowledgments of the 
L'Admirals and the D'Agotys from gratitude 
into plagiarism, from honest thanks into greedy 
theft. I do not think that Jackson sinned as 

1 06 


they had sinned. There is no evidence that he 
had ever been in Le Blon's workshop, and of 
course he was always the wood-engraver, and 
colour-printing was in the air. But still he 
must have heard of Le Blon's colour-prints, for 
the engraving world in London between 1720 
and 1726 was a very limited one, and this master 
dominated it. In Paris it was no less limited, 
and Le Blon was there almost as soon as Jackson. 
Then again, when it comes to a question of 
"invention," I do not know how Jackson in- 
tended to explain away the work he did in Paris 
in combination with that celebrated amateur the 
Comte de Caylus. This consisted of chiaroscuros 
executed in copper and wood, which were finished 
by Jackson. 

Jackson worked in Venice for fourteen years. 
During that time he published in colours "The 
Descent from the Cross " by Rembrandt, and a 
set of seventeen large engravings in colour after 
pictures by Titian and other Venetians. He also 
did some satisfactorychiaroscuros after Parmigiano 
and six coloured landscapes after Ricci. These 
landscapes were dedicated to the Earl of Holder- 
ness, who was the new Ambassador Extraordinary 
to the Republic of Venice. They were imita- 
tions of paintings in aquarillo or water-colour, 
and were sold afterwards also in London, where 
they met with some success, due to the fact that 
this particular form of painting was a compara- 
tively new art in England. There is in exist- 
ence a fine portrait of Algernon Sidney, cut in 



wood by Jackson. This was also done in his 
Venice days. 

After twenty years of Continental travelling 
Jackson grew home-sick for England. He had 
outgrown his friends, outlived his enemies, and 
was so firmly wedded to his picture-engravings 
that, in the wonderful obsession of a single idea, 
he ignored all that had taken place in his absence, 
and issued the essay before alluded to, in which 
he called himself the inventor of an art that had 
already become almost as well known as the line- 
engravings of Hogarth. Of course he brought 
a nest of hornets buzzing about his ears, and 
succeeded, as he had done in Paris, in closing 
against him the shops of the printsellers, by 
whose aid alone he could have made his appeal 
to the public. 

The application of colour-printing to the 
making of paper-hangings " of taste, duration, and 
elegance " was dealt with in part of Jackson's 
pamphlet, and it was in this branch of his art 
that he finally established himself at Battersea. 
There was, of course, nothing essentially new in 
the enterprise ; for, to say nothing of the Le 
Blon factory, at the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, paper-hangings, printed in chiaroscuro, had 
been produced in France. The factory at Batter- 
sea seems to have been extensively patronised by 
Horace Walpole, but the link is lost between 
this apparently successful period of Jackson's life 
and the time when he retired, poor and miserable, 
to die in the Scotch Asylum, as related by Bewick. 



Walpole, who dwells, like a baby with a new 
toy, on the many charms and delights of the 
little chateau de luxe which he was arranging for 
himself at Strawberry Hill, wrote, " The bow 
window below leads into a little parlour hung 
with stone- colour Gothic paper and Jackson's 
Venetian prints, which I could never endure 
while they pretended, infamous as they are, to 
be after Titian, etc., but when I gave them this 
air of barbarous bas-reliefs they succeed to a 

As these prints were not published in England, 
Jackson must have brought a supply of them 
when he came over, and probably managed to 
sell them to Walpole when the latter was inspect- 
ing his paper-hangings. For Walpole says 
somewhat later in the same letter : — 

" I went the other morning with Mr. Conway 
to buy some of the new paper for you. . . . 
Imagine the walls covered with (I call it paper, 
but it is really paper covered in perspective to 
represent,) Gothic fretwork." The parlour on 
the ground floor, he tells us, was hung " with 
yellow paper ; and prints, framed in a new 
manner, invented by Lord Cardigan," that is 
with black and white borders, printed. Other 
rooms are hung with green paper, and here he 
has his water-colours ; and another has " a blue 
and white paper in stripes adorned with festoons." 
This is sufficient evidence that the manufactory 
at Battersea was receiving both orders and 
patronage. The date of this letter is 1753. 



That disaster in some form or another must 
have overtaken the enterprise appears from the 
fact that twelve months later, under the patron- 
age of the Duke of Cumberland, a manufactory 
for wall-hangings was established at Fulham, and 
this would scarcely have been in competition with 
the Battersea one. 

But what became of Jackson between 1753, 
when he was making wall-hangings for Horace 
Walpole, and 1780, when he died in the Asylum 
in Scotland, is a mystery to which I have not 
been able to find the slightest clue. 

Jackson was the last of the adventurers. 
Ryland and the stipple arrived simultaneously 
somewhere about 1760, Bartolozzi in 1764. 
The public received them with open arms and 
gaping mouths. They were the pioneers of a 
movement which revolutionised the print trade. 
Between them they managed to alter the standard 
of taste, and to create a market unequalled at the 
time in extent and scope. They are the two 
men without whom " colour-prints " in their 
present highly valued condition would have had 
no existence. 



The meeting of Stipple-Engraving and Colour-Printing in France 
— Jean Fran9ois and his artistic relationship to Jan Lutma — 
William Wynne Ryland's journey to Paris, his meeting with 
Fran9ois — Imitations of Chalk Drawings after Watteau, 
Boucher, and Fragonard, printed in colours from one plate 
under the inspiration of Comte de Caylus — The method finds 
little favour in France and is brought to England by Ryland, 
where it is at once firmly established in public favour for the 
reproduction of Water-Colour Drawings by Angelica KaufF- 
mann — Ryland's career and execution, and the true story of 
his supposed confession. 

The next stepping-stone on the road to the 
eighteenth -century colour- print is the one that 
leads direct to the stipple - engravers of that 
period. And, notwithstanding the lack of a 
contemporary entente cordiale^ it is in France we 
find it. Jean Fran9ois, the stepping-stone in 
question, was the legitimate artistic descendant 
of the Dutchman, Jan Lutma, whose fine heads, 
engraved at the end of the seventeenth century, 
are still the best examples extant of the opus 
mallei which culminated in the so-called "chalk 

Fran9ois was born in 1707 at Nancy. It is 
undoubtedly to him that we trace the inspiration 
that gave stipple-engraving its ultimate place. 


He was not perhaps a remarkable engraver, but he 
was an inventive one, and his inventiveness, like 
that of Le Blon, marked a new patch of cultiva- 
tion in the field he made his own. The chalk 
manner, imitations of wash-drawings, printing in 
colour, were among his successful experiments. 
When Arthur Pond made his Continental tour 
with Roubiliac he passed through Paris. This 
was the historical occasion when Joshua Reynolds 
met them both in the company of his old master, 
Hudson. There Pond made the acquaintance 
of Fran9ois ; and the result of that acquaintance 
seems to have been the head of Guercino, 
executed in the chalk manner, and printed in 
the colour afterwards known as the " Bartolozzi 
red," in London, about 1740. It has already 
been seen how far Arthur Pond carried the 
knowledge he had acquired from Fran9ois. It 
was to the point where Ryland took it up and 
carried it to its finality. But in those early days 
when Pond and Fran9ois talked the matter over, 
Fran9ois had not yet satisfied even himself with 
his results. Sixteen years later, however, he 
triumphantly presented six stippled prints to 
the Marquis Marigny, whose admiration of 
them led him to procure a royal appointment 
for their creator. 

It was in or about 1760 that William Wynne 
Ryland, also in the company of Roubiliac, made 
his first journey to Paris, and was taken to the 
studio of the disappointed pensionnaire, then in 
the enjoyment of 600 francs a year and the title 



that had proved so empty a compliment, of 
Grave ur des Dessins du Cabinet du Roi. Ryland 
made friends with the old man and worked 
in his studio during his stay in Paris, learn- 
ing many of his secrets and all of his 
methods. Francois, of course, claimed the title 
of "Inventor" of Stipple -Engraving, but he 
was never able to make it good, still less could 
he secure to himself the monopoly in pro- 
duction. The moment was ripe for stipple- 
engraving, as it had proved for colour-printing : 
Bonnet and Demarteau trod quickly upon the 
heels of Fran9ois. The dotted manner suited 
the delicate Boucher and Watteau drawings. 
Bonnet, choosing his subjects with skill, reaped 
where Fran9ois had sown. Fran9ois, like many 
of the pioneers of engraving in colour, died poor, 
neglected, and embittered. 

It was, apparently, the celebrated amateur 
Comte deCaylus who first suggested printing these 
stipple-engravings in the colours of the original 
drawings, from one plate. And although he 
himself was still working in mezzotint and many 
printings, in the manner of Le Blon, and had 
not yet abandoned the ambition to reproduce the 
works of the great Masters by this means, he 
found time in the intervals of his travels, literary 
labours, and interminable correspondence, to 
interest himself in what he wrote of to Thomas 
Wedgwood as " a new little art." Although 
due credit must therefore be given to Comte de 
Caylus ; with Johannes Teyler as well as Le 

113 I 


Blon already in the field, it will be seen that 
the suggestion was not far to seek. 

Strangely enough, at least it seems strange 
to me, stipple-engraving, printed in colours, 
although it emanated thence, never had a real 
success in France. The process was too simple, 
too direct ; something subtler, more complicated, 
offering more scope to the individual workman, 
was required to tickle the artistic palate of 
eighteenth-century France. So stipple-engraving 
went over to England with William Wynne 
Ryland, and mixed methods of producing en- 
gravings in colours remained behind. Com- 
binations of aquatint and etching, delicate and 
intricate tool-work, ingenious applications of one 
art to another, elaborations in mezzotint, engaged 
the attention of such men as Janinet and 
Debucourt, Alix, Sergent, and Descourtis. A 
few years later we find contemporary French 
writers alluding to stipple-engraving as la maniere 
Anglaise — under which title, by the way, it is 
still spoken of in the art circles of Paris. 

To William Wynne Ryland we owe the 
earliest stipple -engravings, printed in several 
colours from one plate, and published in London. 

The man and his career are almost as interest- 
ing as his work. He was the son of a copper-plate 
printer who lived, with a large family of seven 
sons, in the precincts of the Old Bailey. He 
had been apprenticed to Ravenet, whose repu- 
tation stood second to none in the little world 
of artists and artisans just beginning to congre- 



gate in and about Leicester Square. It was at 
the conclusion of his indentures, in company 
with Roubiliac and Gabriel Smith, as already 
mentioned, that he made the journey to the 
Continent that had such wide-reaching results. 
Paris, both artistically and socially, suited the 
temperament of young Ryland, who left his 
companions to complete their tour without him, 
and remained behind to alternate joyous nights 
with laborious days, and to acquire the superficial 
polish that ultimately proved so dangerous a 
possession. On the joyous nights I may not 
dilate. Paris in 1760 offers too many induce- 
ments to the novelist to be safe ground for a 
would - be historian with the instincts of a 
romancer. But the laborious days included, in 
addition to what he learned from Francois, the 
study of design under Le Bas, with the direct 
inspiration of such artists as Watteau, Boucher, 
and Fragonard. His taste developed, as well it 
might under such stimulus, and when he won, in 
competition with his French colleagues, the gold 
medal from the Society for the Encouragement 
of Art, which entitled him to pursue his studies 
gratis at the Academy in Rome, he abandoned the 
delights of the gay capital and went to Italy. 

Altogether he remained out of England for 
over five years, and returned to his native land a 
very polished and courtly young gentleman, well 
versed in the ways of the world, of handsome 
person if licentious habits, a graceful designer 
if not a bold one, an engraver of skill if not of 



transcendent talent. He was almost immediately 
appointed Engraver to the King, an appointment 
that had been offered to Strange, the famous line- 
engraver, whose Jacobite sympathies compelled 
him to refuse it. Ryland's foreign training had 
left him no such scruples. He accepted the 
appointment carrying a salary of J[,2oo a year, 
and on the strength of it married precipitately 
a young and unlettered country girl, whom, 
within a few months of his hasty marriage, 
he found to be a very uncongenial companion. 

It was as a worker in line and not in 
stipple that Ryland had been selected for the 
post of engraver to the monarch who was at 
once so anxious to patronise, and so incapable 
of appreciating the arts that he took under his 
Royal protection ; and it was in line that Ryland 
executed his first commissions for portraits of 
His Majesty, after Allan Ramsay, and of the 
Queen, after Cotes. And very ably he performed 
his task. He was still working in line when, in 
partnership with Mr. Bryer, he opened a print- 
shop at the Royal Exchange in Cornhill. He 
took apprentices, of whom Joseph Strutt was, 
perhaps, the most important. It was here that 
he issued those six classic subjects after Correggio 
and Guercino from the collection of the Earl of 
Bute, admirable work, well-balanced, strong, 
and individual. 

Ryland, with his Royal appointment, his 
steadily increasing private connection, his flourish- 
ing business, had everything in his favour during 



those first few years of his establishment in 
London. But he was of a social and convivial 
habit, and his expenses and income never 
seemed quite to keep pace. 

It was in the spring of 1767 that the two 
events occurred which so greatly affected Ryland's 
future and the future of his art. At first sight 
they seem to have no bearing upon each other, 
and still less upon stipple-engraving. He met 
and was presented to Angelica Kauffmann, a 
young Italian artist recently arrived in England, 
but already enjoying Court favour. Two days 
after this introduction his brother Richard was 
arrested for highway robbery. 

The old Ryland had been ambitious for his 
children. The line of demarcation between the 
commercial and the aristocratic world was no less 
firmly marked in England than on the Continent, 
but Ryland had given his sons the education of 
gentlemen ; they had all learned Latin, and one 
of them, Richard, had been to College. William 
Wynne amply fulfilled his father's hopes ; his 
Court appointment seemed the beginning of a 
career of which they could all be justly proud. 
But beyond that the elder Ryland had no satis- 
faction from his sons. Two of them died in 
early youth ; Richard, the collegian, proved a 
very thorn in his father's flesh. He had the 
excessive vanity of his little learning ; the desire 
to shine without the necessary qualifications, 
which distinguishes the ill-bred ; and the wish 
to be thought a gentleman, without the means 



even of a substantial citizen, which eventually 
proved the most fatal of his many failings. He 
was an idle, improvident spendthrift ; dissolute 
and vicious. Returning from a fox-hunt one 
day, half drunk, disappointed in his day's sport, 
not having in his pocket the wherewithal to 
defray the cost of his hired hack, he played the 
footpad in an amateurish and bungling way, 
stopping the chaise of two ladies, and robbing 
them of a few shillings. He had not even the 
ability to avoid identification and arrest. He 
was tried, condemned, and sentenced to death. 
Then it was that his brother exerted all the 
influence that he was able to command in an 
endeavour to save him from the ultimate con- 
sequence of his crime. Society listened sym- 
pathetically to the handsome young engraver, 
and Angelica Kauffmann's soft Italian accents 
swelled the prayers for clemency. Unheard-of 
efforts were made, and unfortunately they were 
successful. I say " unfortunately " advisedly, for 
the same efforts could not move the King twice, 
and the Royal pardon was extended to Richard 
which might more justly have been exercised 
later on to save William. 

Ryland appears to have suffered little social 
obloquy on account of his brother's conduct, and 
that little was amply compensated for by the 
sympathy of his new acquaintances, Angelica 
Kauffmann and her father. Here was the dawn of 
the intimacy to which sunrise and sunset, evening 
and night, succeeded each other so rapidly. 



Angelica KaufFmann had been brought over 
to England in 1766 by Lady Wentworth ; in 
1768 she was one of the original thirty-six 
members of the new Royal Academy at which 
Ryland was one of the earliest exhibitors. Grati- 
tude for her exertions on his brother's behalf, 
the link of language, for Ryland spoke both 
French and Italian, drew the two together in 
those assemblies where they were both occasion- 
ally received by their patrons, but in which 
neither was quite at home. Ryland was not 
without that parvenu desire to shine that had 
brought such disastrous results to his brother. 
He wanted to ruffle it with the aristocrats, not 
to look on with the workers. Poor Goldsmith 
himself could not be more anxious about his 
famous " suit " than was Ryland about his velvet 
coats and fine laces and diamond buckles when 
he was bidden to a reception at Mrs. Montagu's, 
or to take tea with Mrs. Crewe. He entertained 
his entertainers, and the result was inevitable. 
In 1 77 1 the business in the Royal Exchange 
became bankrupt, and the whilom gallant was 
reduced to dodging sponging-house officers and 
avoiding arrest for debt. 

This was when Angelica appeared to him as 
a ministering angel. Minasi, who related the 
story, heard it direct from Bartolozzi, and here 
it enjoys for the first time the dignity of print. 

One evening Ryland, " reduced to his last 
shoe-buckle," had walked, under cover of the 
friendly dusk, to the lodging occupied by Angelica 



and her father. He had talked lightly to her 
of his position, though it was grave enough to 
make his voice tremulous. She delicately hinted 
her desire to assist, which he as delicately waved 
aside. Perhaps neither of them was completely 
genuine, but both of them had caught the spirit 
of the manner that grows in Courts. Both of 
them were young, and ultimately both of them 
proved themselves emotional, romantic, impulsive. 
The evening hour, full of temptation and 
possibilities, found them unstrung and tender ; 
what she would give, what he might not take, 
were question and answer that vibrated in the 
warm air of the studio. They were holding each 
other's hands, as they talked, when that worldly- 
minded old adventurer, the Chevalier Kauffmann, 
came in, and they fell apart suddenly, as if they 
had been guilty of something more than kindli- 
ness and sympathy. Hurriedly Ryland began to 
speak of the Signorina's work, of the success she 
had gained ; he likened her to the young Raphael, 
to Correggio. No compliments were too ex- 
aggerated for the father, who had found a new 
Eldorado in the daughter he guarded so jealously 
and so injudiciously. His daughter listened with 
avid interest to the discussion of her talents. 
Gradually she joined in the conversation as it 
developed from Italian to modern Art, and as the 
personal note faded out of the atmosphere that 
had grown clear and worldly. From Correggio, 
Ryland fell to Fragonard, and presently he found 
himself speaking of Fran9ois, of the old man in his 



forgotten studio, and his engravings which had so 
wonderfully reproduced the water-colour drawings. 

It was the readier wit of the woman that 
kindled first, and she questioned him breath- 
lessly ; the process so simple, so easy, appealed to 
her feminine art -instincts. There were dozens 
of water-colour drawings littering the room in 
which they sat. In Rome Ryland had forgotten 
both stipple-engraving and colour-printing ; in 
England it had seemed unnecessary to remember 
them. But with threatening poverty and those 
pretty neoclassic designs of Angelica KaufFmann's 
before him, he suddenly called to mind with 
what enthusiasm he and the old French engraver 
had discussed colour-printing. From the past 
to the present was a thought- flash as quick as 
summer lightning. Would she, could she 
permit him to copy a sketch of hers in the 
manner described ? There was no time for the 
Chevalier's intervention, but in truth he had no 
objection to anything but a love-affair between 
the penniless engraver and his gifted daughter. 
Angelica was charmed, delighted, more than 
interested. Ryland went home that night with 
a light heart and a portfolio of Angelica's draw- 
ings under his arm. That evening in the studio 
with that portfolio of sketches was the beginning 
of a new burst of prosperity for him. 

Angelica Kauffmann's popularity with the 
masses, or with the limited section of them that 
patronised the Royal Academy, was a very sudden 
growth. A few years after she had exhibited 


for the first time, Allan Ramsay notes that en- 
gravings from her pictures sold more readily than 
any others. Cipriani himself was not more 
admired. It was this popularity that Ryland 
was destined to share. 

The story goes that he engraved one of the 
drawings in the stipple manner within two days, 
and, carrying it first for approval to his fair 
young benefactress, he personally printed a few 
impressions in colours by the process he had 
learnt in Paris. They were exhibited in the 
windows of the print-shops, and sold most 
readily, so readily indeed that eager inquiries 
were made for more ; and more w^ere printed, 
not only from this plate, but from others. He 
found the demand in a very short time was 
almost more than he could meet, but he worked 
hard, and it is a point in his favour not to be lost 
sight of, that, before he began to spend again the 
money he made so easily, he paid off the creditors 
who had declared under his bankruptcy. He 
paid off his creditors, he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, he held up his head and walked about 
a free and prosperous man. 

But misfortune had been too short a sojourner 
with him, he had learnt little or nothing from 
its hurried visit. 

In 1775 he started in business again, this time 
at 1 59 Strand, and from there he issued a large 
number of engravings in colour, and here for the 
first time it became fully recognised that colour 
suited these delicate engravings, these fancy sub- 



jects ; here it was that the betrothal of stipple- 
engraving and colour-printing was publicly 

It was the supreme moment when all that 
had gone before, and all that was to come after, 
found definite expression and complete satisfaction 
in the reproduction of water-colour drawings. 
So long as the " little art *' had endeavoured to 
take upon itself the functions of a great one, so 
long as the struggle had been to reproduce by 
the combined processes of engraving and printing 
the wonderful colour-schemes of the great Italian 
masters, the broad effects of masses in oil-colour, 
so long had it proved a failure. Colour-printing 
with such an ambition was impossible, illegiti- 
mate, inoperative. The moment its limitations 
were realised it became an artistic force, and 
public recognition followed inevitably. Un- 
questionably Angelica KaufFmann contributed 
greatly to this immediate public recognition. 
Her sweet weak pictures, all drapery and little 
drawing, suited exactly the awakening but un- 
educated artistic taste of the middle classes. 
They were classic in subject but not in manner. 
They had all the surface qualities of the new 
decorative design, they were just what was needed 
in the reaction that followed Sir Thomas Cham- 
bers's endeavour to metamorphose the homes of 
England into Chinese pagodas. And the reproduc- 
tion of her designs in colour brought them within 
the pecuniary reach of the very class who admired 
and could make a market for the new industry. 



A couple of gossiping letters written in Italian 
to one of her convent friends give a glimpse of 
the relations between Ryland and Angelica KaufF- 
mann. She admits that his handsome person had 
not failed to make an effect on her heart, and she 
says that the distress he had been in about his 
brother had roused her pity. That she was in- 
capable of recognising any want of depth in his 
refinement, any lack of true breeding in his 
bearing, her subsequent mistake with the valet of 
Count de Horn amply proves. She gave him the 
entree to her painting-room, she made designs in 
water-colours for him to engrave. She interested 
herself in his fortunes, and lent her name to his 
schemes. It was on the strength of his connec- 
tion with Angelica Kauffmann that Ryland, full 
of new hopes and fresh courage, had made his 
second start in business. 

To that establishment in the Strand, so con- 
venient, so well placed, Bartolozzi, together with 
his two friends, Bach and Abel, seems to have 
made frequent visits. Angelo,in his reminiscences, 
makes mention of these excursions. The shop 
was on the left side of the street, squeezed in 
between the little block that separated Somerset 
House, the home of the Royal Academy, from 
Strand Lane. The three foreigners would linger 
over the prints. Bach, fresh from presiding 
over a musical entertainment at Mrs. Cornelly's, 
grunted out amiably his indiscriminate admira- 
tion, Bartolozzi was ready with his more phleg- 
matic criticism. And then, when a sedan-chair 



would stop the way, and Angelica Kauffmann, 
slender and languishing, would step out and 
inquire for the famous proprietor, what a doffing 
of hats and bowing there would be, what a con- 
fusion of soft Italian accents with the rougher 
northern ones. The money-lender opposite, 
shrivelled and curious, would come out to see 
what all the pother was about. Soon he was to 
be professionally interested in his neighbour. 

Bartolozzi would forget to take snuflF, and Bach 
would adjust his wig, but Angelica's airs and 
delicate graces were for neither of them. She 
had brought a drawing for Ryland, or she had 
come to see the result of an engraving from the 
last drawing she had made for him. He had 
the benefit of all her willowy coquetries, half- 
natural, half-affected. Her father pursued the 
role he had acquired, of" standing aside " whilst 
portfolios would be brought out for her inspec- 
tion and her opinion asked as to this and the 
other proof. Then, when she took her nodding 
plumes and defined slenderness back to the chair, 
how deferentially would Ryland attend her. We 
hear that he wore a club wig unpowdered, his 
own hair turned over it in the front, carrying his 
hat in the latest fashion of the day, under his 
left arm. His complexion was dark, his face 
pale and strongly lined. To quote the actual 
words of a contemporary description : " His 
common countenance is very grave, but whilst 
he speaks it becomes rather smiling, he shows 
his teeth and has great affability of manner." 



We can well believe the fair Angelica would be 
ushered out with all the smiles and affability he 
had at his command, while she would go home, 
thrilled and exhilarated by his attentions, to draw 
fresh Cupids, bound or unbound, being sacrificed 
to or tickled, Venuses led in triumphant proces- 
sion, sleeping, or bathing, or making their toilet, 
as her feminine humour might seize her. 

And, left behind, the two engravers seem 
constantly to have discussed with eager interest 
the colour-printing on which she has thrown out 
her airy suggestions. Off went the musicians ; 
they had had enough of the sister-art ; they 
thought there ought to be an Academy of Music 
in London as well as an Academy of Painting — 
they called it " bainting," as the old King used 
to do, and they shrugged their shoulders over 
Angelica's little affectations, and relegated her 
to her proper position in the Art world with 
more correctness than was the fashion of the 

Bartolozzi and Ryland were on fire with the 
enthusiasm of the new industry. Often they 
went into that little ill-built workroom at the 
back of the shop, where the great copper-press 
was fixed, rather creaky, rather stiff in its joints, 
and superintended the printing of, or actually 
printed with their own hands, the plates they 
had previously engraved. Ryland had forgotten 
nothing of his French experiences ; Bartolozzi 
had all the experiments ever made in colour at 
his clever finger-ends ; both of them were artists 



as well as engravers. In these colloquies between 
the two men the limitations of the art were 
defined, and its position was made clear. Palmer 
was often a third in their deliberations, and it 
was Palmer, by the way, who subsequently suc- 
ceeded Ryland, and carried on his business in the 
same house. The three men seem to have decided 
that the ordinary copper-plate printer or appren- 
tice was no good for the colour-work. If the art 
was to flourish, it should be treated as an art, and 
men should be employed in it who were specially 
trained. Then Ryland sent to Paris for a man 
who had been with Le Bas, and to this man, 
Seigneuer, a native of Alsace, in whose hands the 
colour-printing of stipple-engravings was practi- 
cally left for a long time, is due the rare first 
issue of the well-known plates, " A Sacrifice to 
Cupid " and " The Triumph of Beauty and 
Love." These are after designs by Cipriani ; in 
fine condition they are very rare, and have almost 
the value of delicate water-colours. Seigneuer 
apparently printed very few impressions ; these 
were not signed, and it is only through Minasi's 
remembrance of what Bartolozzi told him about 
them that I have been able to identify two or 
three very exceptional proofs. The monochromes 
are both earlier and later ; the prints were popular, 
and the plates changed hands several times. 
Finally, in Molteno's great sale in 1819 they 
realised ^7: 15s. in a very worn and unworkable 
condition. They must have been re-worked and 
re-issued, because I have seen impressions with 


the original date and publication line, printed on 
paper dated 1820. 

Seigneuer is a man of whom little or nothing 
has appeared in print. His connection with 
Ryland and Bartolozzi was a short one. He set 
up for himself, engaged foreign workmen, took 
apprentices, and very soon became known to 
the publishers, who kept him fully occupied. 
Occasionally one comes across an early print that 
is unmistakably his work. I say unmistakably, 
because he seems to have imported his own 
colours in their dry state from Paris, and amongst 
these colours was a peculiar vitreous white, that 
imparted the much-desired transparency to the 
picture. Although Seigneuer never signed his 
work, there is internal evidence that either the 
manner in which this particular white was used, 
or the source from which he imported it was his 
secret, and that the flatter, muddier colours of 
his contemporaries were due to its absence. 
Bartolozzi patronised and recommended him 
largely, and it is in the prints Bartolozzi 
engraved, those he signed, or those for which 
he made water - colour drawings, that I have 
noticed the use of this particular white. 

To follow chronologically the growth of 
colour-printing from the time when Angelica 
Kauffmann and Ryland began to work in unison 
to the time of its premature decay is unnecessary. 
The seed fell on fruitful soil, and for twenty 
years the colour-print flourished like grass. 
Ryland had a host of imitators ; the eager public 



demand grew by that on which it was fed. 
Two rival printsellers, Gamble and Torre, 
rushed into the competition Ryland's unbusiness- 
like habits made so easy, and his generous con- 
fidence made so profitable. Gamble especially, 
in a trade circular sent round to the engravers, 
called himself " inventor of colour-printing " ; a 
claim Ryland never attempted to dispute. 

Ryland had the start and the immense advan- 
tage of Angelica Kauffmann's co-operation, but 
he was very speedily out-distanced by his com- 
petitors. He was an able engraver and a 
talented designer, but he had the training and 
the mental habit of an artist rather than that of 
a tradesman, and spending money never ceased 
to be more attractive to him than making it. 

From 1775, when he started for the second 
time in business, to 1783, when he received his 
abrupt notice to quit, he touched every note in 
the gamut of life. His early marriage became 
known to Angelica shortly after the establish- 
ment of the shop in the Strand, also that there 
were children, of whom he had forgotten to 
speak, in that home in Knightsbridge. Perhaps 
it was this knowledge, perhaps it was that her 
fickle fancy had by this time wandered in the 
direction of Sir Joshua Reynolds, which caused her 
to lose interest in his fortunes. But that she did 
lose interest there is no room to doubt. And 
that Ryland suffered under her neglect as this 
type of man is able to suffer, that is, in his 
vanity, appears on the surface. He wished to 

129 K 


show her that he was independent of her, that 
he was as prosperous, as socially successful, as 
well-considered as she. He plunged into a 
thousand extravagances. A legacy that he came 
into at this time encouraged and gave colour to 
his reckless expenditure. He tasted all the dis- 
sipations of the town. Finally he set up an 
establishment with one of those unfortunate 
women, the will-o'-the-wisps on the road to 
ruin. It was a road Ryland took at a hand- 
gallop, only to pull up abruptly when he found 
he had lost his companion. Some richer, 
courtlier traveller on the same road had caught 
her errant fancy, and from one to the other she 
stole away in the night, without a pause or a 
regret. But she had borne a babe with her in 
her flight, a child that had appealed to its father 
in some subtle way in which those little ones 
in Knightsbridge had failed. She disappeared 
in April 1783. In May of the same year Ryland 
was missing from his shop in the Strand, and 
there was no news of him in the home at 
Knightsbridge. For a few days no one knew 
what had become of him. There was the 
buzzing of gossip, there were rumours, there 
were knowing winks and smiles and broad asides, 
but it was with a shock that society, the second- 
grade society that welcomed artists and engravers, 
awoke to see London placarded by a handbill, 
offering the reward of ^^300 for the person of 
William Wynne Ryland, who was described as 
" dressed in a brown coat, with white waistcoat, 



and coloured silk stockings." He was wanted 
on a charge of forgery, an obscure transaction 
connected with a bill, to which his unfortunate 
flight lent the appearance of connivance. The 
runners found him very soon in a little house, 
the house of a cobbler at Stepney. When he 
found that he could no longer evade pursuit he 
cut his throat. Unfortunately the wound did 
not prove fatal. 

That Ryland's disappearance was due to his 
search for his mistress and his little child, and 
not to his desire to escape from justice, is a 
matter that requires a sympathetic reading of his 
history to make clear. He seems to have had 
for her one of those passions not uncommon in 
the lives of men of artistic temperament, and it 
wrecked at once his reason and his judgment. 
That the child, the poor little illegitimate baby, 
had found an exceptionally warm place in his 
heart we read later on in the scene that took 
place on his way to ignominious death. 

Ryland cut his throat when the runners' steps 
were on the stairs and he pictured himself 
a prisoner. He cut his throat, not because he 
was guilty of having committed the crime for 
which he was pursued, but because he was 
conscious of debt, and was in despair lest his 
arrest at this juncture would stop his search 
for the woman whom he chivalrously thought 
needed his love and his protection to guard her 
from the consequences that her rash and un- 
disciplined temper had brought about. 



Then, as for his famous confession, I have 
seen a copy of it, and what does it amount to ? 
Nothing but an admission that the attempted 
suicide was a crime against which the Almighty 
has set His canon, and that by committing it he 
rendered himself unworthy of commiseration, and 
fit for any punishment that the laws of God or 
man demanded. 

That Ryland was a man of good heart but 
weak principles, of worthy ambitions but lack of 
strength to pursue them, there is ample evidence, 
but that he was capable of committing the mean 
forgery for which he was ultimately condemned 
and executed is incredible. He had crimes to 
answer for ; perhaps not the least of those 
was the birth of that little one for whom his 
affection proved so fatal. But the great crime, 
the crime that in his own eyes, eyes illuminated 
by the Roman Catholic faith which he pro- 
fessed, was beyond pardon, was the attempted 
suicide which followed his capture. 

This is not a special plea for Ryland ; this is 
a conclusion I have arrived at after a careful 
review of the evidence on which he was con- 
victed of forgery and sentenced to death. A 
complete account of the trial is to be found in 
a pamphlet published in 1794. It extends to 
some twenty pages, and there is not a lawyer of 
repute who would venture to find in it sufficient 
data on which to convict a man of forgery. I will 
go further and say there is not sufficient evidence 
in the whole pamphlet to induce a Grand Jury 



of the present day to return a True Bill. The 
indictment is weak, it is flimsy ; prejudice is 
brought into the case, prejudice possibly on 
account of Ryland's loose life, certainly in conse- 
quence of his unpopular faith. To my reading, 
the evidence ; evidence with which I do not 
propose to weary my readers, but to which, in 
justice to the memory of the man who has lain 
for 1 20 years under the imputation of a crime 
that he never committed, I should like to direct 
public attention ; makes it clear that Ryland was 
a victim, sacrificed on the altar of expediency, to 
the anti-Romanist feeling which was still agitat- 
ing the public mind, and which found its cul- 
mination in the No-Popery Riots in 1780. The 
data is technical, bewildering, and again bears so 
very indirectly upon the art of printing stipple- 
engravings in colour, that I do not feel justified 
in more than indicating the source from which 
any one who wishes to rehabilitate Ryland's 
memory can follow the argument. 

A few sentences from the letter he wrote a 
day or two before he was executed will, I think, 
serve better than legal evidence to show what 
manner of man this was. The letter is written 
to Francis Donaldson of Liverpool, and is dated 
"Sunday, 24th August 1783." Here are his 
words, surely not the words of a guilty man, but 
of an unhappy one. The plea in them has been 
disregarded until now : 

" I leave behind me those I love. They 
will feel every word that is said ; each syllable 




respecting my fame will be a dagger or a 
balsam to their breast. Oh, my friend ! will 
you therefore watch and guard my name from 
calumny. ..." 

He goes on to explain that he has not asked 
for the clemency of the Court ; he knows the 
difficulties he overcame in the case of his brother, 
and he realises that it is impossible while he, 
personally, is in durance, and his chief patron, 
the Earl of Bute, in disfavour, to overcome them 
again. But he has no complaint to make on 
this score. With the generous sweetness of his 
nature he admits that he is unworthy of any 
special effort : 

" I do not arraign the gracious benevolence 
that has so long dignified the humanity of the 
British Crown ; I do not arraign the seat of 
judgment that pronounces my sentence. Because 
justice acted against me, as it thought for the 
best, I do not arraign my Jury. I trust they 
possessed the purest principles of unbiassed men. 
I have naught to say against the witnesses — they, 
I am convinced, swore as they thought. . . ." 

He accuses no one, blames no one, he is re- 
signed to ignominious death ; because he is con- 
scious of deserving punishment. Here is the 
clause of the letter which gives the clue to his 
resignation : 

" It was the most wicked of all crimes which 
madness drove me to attempt." 

This sentence has been considered as a confes- 
sion of guilt. Of course the crime to which he 



alludes is the act of attempted suicide. Had it 
been, as was understood at the time, and has 
been called later, an admission of having com- 
mitted the crime of forgery, the word " attempt" 
would have been inappropriate, because the 
forgery must have been an actual committal. 

" Now I shall meet the last executive ven- 
geance of the law with fortitude. I wish this 
hour were my last," he writes ; and goes to 
Tyburn like a man. As his coach drove to the 
place of execution a terrible storm broke over 
London. In the midst of it a woman pushes 
her way through the crowd, stops the coach, 
and holds up to the window a little child. Her 
face is streaming with tears, but the child is 
babbling with the pretty unconscious laughter 
of childhood. Ryland kisses them both, says a 
few words that no one hears, and the coach 
drives on. Those who stood near say the smile 
that was on his face as he spoke to those two 
was on it still when he mounted the fatal scaffold. 

So far as rehabilitating or clearing his name 
is concerned, his friends did nothing for him ; 
they confined their efforts to looking after the 
temporal welfare of his wife and family. Barto- 
lozzi and Strange, good-hearted irreconcilables, 
each finished a plate that Ryland had begun in 
prison, and both plates were issued for the benefit 
of the widow and children. Later on Mrs. 
Ryland opened a print-shop and conducted a 
business which seems to have been fairly suc- 
cessful ; anyway it was still in existence in 1791, 



when the stock of plates and impressions was 
sold by public auction. 

The newly-married arts of stipple-engraving 
and printing in colours remained under the pro- 
tection of Francesco Bartolozzi, who personally 
superintended their triumphant career. 

The works of Ryland in colour that have 
survived are very various in quality both of 
engraving and printing. In every case the 
earliest impressions are infinitely the best (I am 
speaking only of the colour-impressions), and the 
reasons for these great variations in workmanship 
have been already discussed. 

The following may be said to comprise his 
principal engravings after Angelica Kauffmann. 
" Lady Hester Stanhope " under the title " Morn- 
ing Amusement," " Mary, Duchess of Rich- 
mond," " Laudit Amabiliter," " Cupid and 
Aglaie," " Venus presenting Helen to Paris " 
and " The Judgment of Paris," " Olim Truncus," 
" Dormio Innocuus," "Juno Cestum," " O Venus 
Regina," " Cymon and Iphigenia," " Patience 
and Perseverance," " Telemachus Reduse," 
" Telemachus in Aula Spartana," " Eleanora and 
Edward I.," and " Lady Elizabeth Grey and 
Edward IV." 

Several of these were included in a series of 
eighteen issued under the generic title of " Illus- 
trations from Horace." 

" Marianne," and the head of a boy, both 
after his own design, are strong and characteristic 



The state of manufactures in England previous to the introduction 
of machinery — Furniture, China, Paper — The prosperity of the 
middle classes and their desire for the beautifying of their 
homes — The art of Stipple-Engraving explained — The art of 
Colour-Printing Stipple-Engravings described — The existence 
of Colour-Prints in proof state queried and confirmed. 

Bartolozzi's is the figure that looms largest in 
the public eye through the twenty years of 
stipple-work that ended the eighteenth century. 
In an interesting monograph the late Mr. Tuer 
endeavoured to endow the industrious Italian 
with the qualities of a great Master. He ex- 
tended the meagre details of his life over two 
sumptuous volumes, and compiled a list of his 
engravings including nearly 2000 plates. 

But in truth Bartolozzi represented rather a 
firm than an individual, rather an industry than 
an artist. He was nevertheless a great stipple- 
engraver, in the same sense that Wedgwood was 
a great potter, Chippendale a great carver, Robert 
Adam a great architect. All four men were in 
the forefront of a great decorative movement, 
coinciding with, perhaps pioneering, the strong 
impetus that was given to British trade in the 



pregnant interval which divided the American 
War of Independence from the French Revolu- 

A momentary glance at the conditions that 
governed the state of manufactures generally will 
demonstrate this. The marvellous increase of 
commercial activity coincident with the inven- 
tion of the power-loom, with the added facilities 
of communication offered by the new canals, 
marked the spirit of, what I will call, the higher 
civilisation, the desire for personal and communal 
luxury, and for the consequent ornament. It 
was the final effort, the back-wash of the art- 
wave that had swept over our shores ; it had 
spent something of its vigour, perhaps, before 
then, but it did its freshening work. Fortu- 
nately, notwithstanding Watt and Cartwright, 
hand-work was still the order of the day. 

No one who has studied the debased and 
hideous work of the early Victorian Era, can 
shut his eyes to the evil effect which the first 
introduction of machinery had upon the crafts- 
men in every branch of manufacture. All 
those four men I have mentioned were artist, 
artisan, and master in one ; a condition of affairs 
of which the possibility vanished with the 
employment of steam, and all it brought in its 
train. It was the purely personal element in 
the production of articles for daily use that made 
for beauty ; it was the purely personal element 
in the more directly utilitarian crafts that made 
for strength and value. Wonderful legacies in 



stone and in brick, in earthenware and metal, in 
mahogany and satin-wood, that have come down 
to us from that age of individualism, bear 
eloquent witness to this truth. 

The great years of English furniture, of 
English china, and of hand-made English articles 
generally, were also the great years of colour- 
printed stipple- engravings. And there is one 
industry which so directly affected their value 
that it is worthy of a momentary consideration 
from this point of view alone. I allude to the 
industry of paper-making. Up to the year 1798 
all paper was hand -made, and the tone and 
texture that collectors so justly value as the 
foundation of their prints owe something of 
their quality to this fact. In the year 1798 the 
paper-machine, which led to the degradation of 
the material on which engravings were printed, 
was invented by Louis Robert, a clerk in the 
employment of Messrs. Didot, of the celebrated 
Essones paper-mills. 

The first mills which were erected in England 
for the manufacture of paper were the Frogmore 
Mills at Boxmoor, Herts, established by Messrs. 
Fourdrinier, with the assistance of Bryan Donkin, 
the engineer. A happy bankruptcy delayed the 
process some years longer, after which machine- 
made paper and a pitiable deterioration in the 
art of engraving made an almost simultaneous 
appearance. It is not too much to affirm, as I 
do, with the assent of practical paper-makers, 
that had these fine prints of Bartolozzi and his 



school, to say nothing of those of the great early 
Dutch and Italian Masters, been taken off on the 
machine-made paper to which modern custom 
has almost reconciled us, eighty per cent would 
have ceased to exist, would have absolutely 
crumbled and decayed past preservation or re- 

Such a misfortune, however, the twentieth 
century will bear with equanimity when it 
shall inevitably affect a very large proportion of 
Victorian engravings ! 

I have spoken of fine prints and Bartolozzi in 
association, and may justly leave the words as 
they are written. But it is indisputable that he, 
and the large school that he founded, enjoyed 
a contemporary consideration with the public 
somewhat disproportionate to deserts, and greatly 
to the indignation of many of the art-critics, 
and brother artists. Horace Walpole alludes 
more than once to " Bartolozzi and fan mounts " 
when condemning in toto the Boydell Shake- 
speare scheme, and Sir Robert Strange spoke 
contemptuously of his Italian rival as " only 
fit to engrave benefit tickets." It must be 
admitted that Sir Robert had a large measure 
of provocation. He had fine taste and feeling 
for his art, yet he was neglected, passed over, 
and ignored, whilst " praise and pudding " were 
dealt out with lavish hand to the creator of 
a multitude of winged Cupids with strange 
anatomy, and miniature Venuses with monoto- 
nous features. That Bartolozzi was capable of 



better things he proved by his magnificent line- 
work — work not inferior in strength to that of 
Sir Robert himself, and superior to it often in 
sweetness and delicacy. 

But Bartolozzi was tempted to a great output 
by the public appreciation of his stipple-work. 
He yielded to the temptation, and imperilled a 
reputation that should have been unrivalled. 
The cause of his popularity is not far to seek. 
It was, as I have shown, an age of applied art. 
The middle class was growing wealthy through 
the increase in commerce. Unlike the French 
peasants, they did not want to accumulate mere 
money, or to benefit the public funds. They 
wanted to emulate that which they found most 
admirable in the aristocracy that governed them ; 
they wanted to add to the comforts of their 
homes the luxury of beautiful ornament. Taste 
was growing, but was undeveloped. The Court, 
plebeian in personal habit, more anxious to 
patronise than capable of bestowing patronage 
wisely, encouraged Benjamin West and allowed 
Wilson to starve. There was nevertheless a 
distinct artistic development, though in the land 
of freedom all the boundaries were undefined. 
What has been called the " English Renaissance " 
lacked just that purity, just that classicism neces- 
sary to form a standard. It was a bastard birth, 
half Italian and half Chinese, driven hither and 
thither, now protected and now ignored ; it took 
lurid colour from the east and strange decoration 
from the west ; it educated itself outside the 



discipline of a school, and this notwithstanding, 
or, perhaps, because of, the existence of a Royal 
Academy, and the generous ushership of a Duke 
of Richmond. Under such circumstances, an 
art- revival without an art- education, it is not 
surprising that much of the public demand was 
for the merely " pretty," whilst those that had a 
higher ideal were fed, if not satisfied, by the 
sham magnificence of the Boydell enterprise. 

Certainly an English art -school grew up. 
The life and the genius of Sir Joshua Reynolds did 
not spend themselves in vain. But, outside the 
school, dominated by the conditions that governed, 
not Art but Commerce, Bartolozzi set up his 
manufactory of stipple-engravings, and superin- 
tended the production of colour-prints as seriously 
as if he knew no better. That in such hands 
this happy combination of two little arts pro- 
duced results almost equal to a great one, it is 
the object of my book to prove. But nothing is 
to be gained by exaggerating the powers and 
possibilities of stipple -engraving ; it lacks the 
grandeur of line-engraving and the poetry of 
mezzotint. The union with colour made its 
strength ; a union that would merely have de- 
stroyed the dignity of its superiors. 

The process of stipple - engraving in its 
eighteenth-century development ought, perhaps, 
to be described before the process of printing 
in colour is fully gone into. It is a simple 
process from start to finish. 

An etching ground was laid on a copper-plate 



and the subject transferred to it as in an etching. 
The outline was laid in by means of small dots 
made with the dry etching-point, after which 
all the darker parts were etched likewise in dots, 
which were larger and laid closer together for 
the deep shades. The work was then bitten in, 
the engraver taking care not to let the aquafortis 
remain too long on the middle tints. When the 
ground was taken off the plate, all the lighter 
parts were laid in with the stipple-graver. The 
stipple -graver was an ordinary engraving- tool 
differently placed in the handle to give a facility 
for dot - making. Not only were the lighter 
parts in a good stipple-engraving laid in with 
the graver, but the middle tints also, if they had 
been but faintly bitten in, were deeper and softer 
when worked up with the graver. When the 
dark shadows were too faint they were often 
deepened by laying a re-biting ground, which 
accounts for a certain harshness of effect in some 

The so-called " chalk manner " is a form of 
stipple in which the strokes of chalk or crayon 
on a granulated surface are imitated by a suc- 
cession of irregular dots so arranged as to give 
an exactly similar result. 

It is not necessary to tell any one who knows 
anything of line or mezzotint work how infinitely 
quicker and simpler it is to get a result from the 
above means than from either of the others. It 
was this very ease and simplicity that made its 
great temptation. Bartolozzi was a very quick 



worker in line, but with all his speed he could 
not have done in line what he did in stipple, 
and, long before poor Ryland's judicial murder 
had put an end to the experiments at 159 Strand, 
his successor had discovered the value that fine 
colour-printing gave to his hurried work. The 
colour-printers were exposed to the same tempta- 
tion as the stipple-engravers, and the art decayed 
almost as rapidly as it had arisen. Like some 
rare tropical plant of fabled fame, it grew for 
nearly 300 years before it flowered. Twenty 
years it was in bloom, and now, although the 
vigorous tree remains, its exquisite efflorescence 
is but a memory. Unfortunately, to print a 
copper-plate in colours, once the cameo method 
had been finally discarded, seemed so simple that 
as time went on and the public demand, indis- 
criminate and clamorous, overtook the supply, 
the work was put into the hands of men who 
had not the right eye for colour, nor the right 
manipulation, delicate and wary, for producing 
pictures. Over-production induced inferior work- 
manship ; public disappointment was followed 
by public disgust ; lithography came in with its 
smooth and even result ; and stipple-engraving 
and copper-plate colour-printing, after a few final 
struggles, died a natural death. 

Even a superficial consideration of the art 
will show how necessary an ingredient was 
Time in its acquisition, and Time was the one 
wage the employers of both engraver and printer 
were unwilling to give. 



A successful copper- plate printer in colour 
should have been a capable monochrome printer, 
and even now it is considered that a man must 
have passed a seven years' apprenticeship to the 
press before he achieves that distinction. He 
should have had an eye for colour ; the eye 
of an artist rather than an artisan. He should 
possess untiring patience and a steady hand. 
And even then he would obtain varying results. 
He was working, as I will show forthwith, 
practically in the dark, relying on instinct, on 
feeling, rather than on rule. The press would 
play him strange tricks, the paper would give 
uncertainty to his most carefully prepared tints. 
The day's work would offer him all the variety 
of the changing hours. He must for ever con- 
sider the light, as morning gave way to noon, 
and noon to evening. And when he had given all 
this consideration and allowed for all possibilities, 
the lapse of a few hours would find the colours 
dry on his palette, the linseed oil for mixing 
them — the printers burned it themselves in the 
early days — more or less brown, and differing 
in strength according to individual idiosyncrasy, 
and, almost as a matter of course, the proving 
would have to be done afresh every day. And 
then other little matters would present them- 
selves. The wear of the unsteeled copper-plate, 
for instance, might baffle him for a time, and 
render the consequent strengthening of the 
colours necessary where this wearing and 
weakening occurred. 

H5 L 


For those to whom the art of printing copper- 
plate engravings in colour is completely un- 
known, I give a simple description. It may 
seem bald to those who are experts, but I have 
purposely avoided technicalities, and have used 
the terms that seemed to me to describe most 
exactly the methods employed, rather than those 
in general use in the workshops. That I am 
able to give this description at all is due to the 
fact that copper-plate printing seems to be as 
hereditary an art as the art of acting. Two of 
the firms now engaged in printing in colours from 
copper-plates have been continuously trading for 
over I GO years. In both cases tradition and the 
system of apprenticeship have kept alive the 
methods of working, and by dint of indefatigably 
questioning the oldest members of these firms, 
and their workmen, and making practical experi- 
ments to test the oral traditions of great-grand- 
fathers and great - great - grandfathers, I have 
arrived at the following, and personally am 
satisfied as to its correctness. 

In addition to the testimony of these two 
firms, I have the description given by Minasi, 
who worked with Bartolozzi, and died in 1 865 
at the age of eighty-nine. Retaining his senses 
to the last, he was wont to talk freely about the 
great days of copper-plate printing in colour, 
to a coterie of interested friends, of whom my 
grandfather, his neighbour, happened, fortunately, 
to be one. 

A copper-plate, engraved and ready for print- 



ing, was given to the workman, together, as a 
rule, with a water-colour drawing for a guide to 
the colours. I have seen many of these water- 
colour drawings by Harding, by Downman, by 
Hamilton, by Bartolozzi, and more recently by 
Adam Buck. It was not at all unusual for the 
engraver, and not the artist, to make this water- 
colour drawing. Comparing these drawings 
with the prints, I should say that the instruc- 
tions were to get as nearly as possible the 
general effect, not to consider detail of shade or 
colour. I incline to this theory because in the 
prints I have seen with the drawings, the artists 
have signed proofs as being satisfactory, which, 
whilst conveying the effect of the drawings, differ 
very much from them in many particulars. A 
few sets of these drawings with the prints are 
in the British Museum. The only " unknown 
quantity " that may invalidate this argument is, 
that time may have altered the printed colours, 
and left unchanged the drawings ; a perfectly 
conceivable possibility dependent on the fugitive 
nature of certain colours when mixed with burnt 
oil — blue, for instance. 

The printer having the plate, which he care- 
fully cleaned with turpentine, and the colour- 
scheme, which he closely studied, commenced 
by selecting the ground-tint. He noted the 
prevailing tone, generally a brown, or black, or 
grey of greater or lesser strength, and with this 
he inked or filled in the work over the entire 
plate, as if he were preparing for monochrome. 



But instead of wiping the ink lightly into the 
lines or dots, as he would have done in that case, 
he wiped it out of them ; that is to say, having 
inked the plate, he went over it with the muslin 
in the endeavour to get it as nearly clean as 
possible, leaving only the tone or neutral tint on 
which to build up his picture. Slight as this 
tone was, little of it as was left on the plate, the 
preparation and consideration of this stage of the 
proceedings were more uncertain, and required 
more knowledge, than almost any of the others. 
This slight tone dominated the picture, lightened 
or deepened the plate, changed the relation of all 
the colours, and affected the ultimate result in 
every detail. 

Having thus secured the ground-tint, the next 
point was to select the brighter colours in the 
picture, the blues and reds, the mauves and 
greens. This was where, to a certain extent, 
the printer worked in the dark, at least as far as 
proving the plate was concerned. The plate 
with its dull tinge of ground was on the printing- 
table before him ; his palette was prepared ; 
the colours mixed in accordance with the 
pattern. But there was a grand uncertainty in 
the action ; the blue, which had exactly 
matched the pattern while it was on the 
palette, might print lighter or darker as the 
ground -tint modified or rejected it; the en- 
graving, strong or faint, might hold the red or 
throw it off. All this could only be seen 
definitely after the press had done its work. 



The printer had to experiment, had to bring his 
experiences and patience to bear, whilst in the 
meantime, with brush, poupee, or stump, he 
inked in the hat or the ribbon, the dress or the 
drapery, with the colour he had prepared. This 
inking had to be very neatly, very accurately 
done, and the outlines kept clear. The diffi- 
culty can be understood when the size of some of 
the figures is considered, as well as the fact that 
it was not enough to paint the surface ; the colour 
had to be rubbed into the engraving in such a 
manner as to fill in the line or stipple completely. 
When the principal colours had in this way 
been painted or inked in, the application of the 
flesh -tints, which were always left to the last, 
was a formidable task still to tackle. As a 
general rule, though there were many important 
exceptions, the ground had to be completely 
wiped out of the engraved work, and a fresh 
ground put in, wherever there was a flesh-tint 
to be dealt with. It had to be wiped off 
because it would make the result dull, or 
muddy ; a fresh one had to be put in because, 
otherwise, the modelling would be lost ; there 
would then be nothing that would print. Over 
this new ground, therefore, — a ground of car- 
mine and white, or carmine and burnt sienna, or 
carmine alone, or blue and white, or a hundred 
other combinations, the effect of which had to 
be laboriously sought, — the flesh had to be built 
up, the features, eyes and brows, shadows and 
lips, painted into the plate, and all the accessories 



cared for. And when all this had been done, 
the plate was still not ready for printing. All 
the colours were there in their right places, but 
they had to be adjusted, blended, and again 
toned. Shadows were put in the second time 
with the ground-colour or some other. High 
lights were wiped close, so as to give the paper 
a chance, or added in whites or yellows. Eyes 
were accentuated, hair relieved, and the whole 
fused or blended with the muslin. It was in 
this fusing or blending that the born colour- 
printer revealed himself. It needed care, pre- 
cision, and knowledge. And all these were 
valueless without just that little gift, as rare as 
it is valuable, which is as impossible to describe 
as it is to impart. This is the " personal 
element " which accounts for so much that is 
puzzling in the various states and impressions 
of old colour-prints. 

There were two or three tricks or artifices, 
besides the foregoing, essential to ensure a com- 
pletely successful result. 

The plate was kept slightly warmed in print- 
ing. It was then that a certain amount of re- 
troussage and, to use the expressive word of the 
workshop, " tickling up " was resorted to in 
order to bring forward shadows or deepen dis- 
tances. Retroussage, or dragging, as far at least 
as the word is concerned, is a modern invention, 
but there is a large amount of evidence as to the 
employment of an analogous process on the 
eighteenth-century colour-prints. It was at this 



stage also that dry colour was dusted on, to 
heighten a complexion or accentuate the fold of 
a drapery. This dusting over the slightly moist 
colour was first done by Johannes Teyler in the 
seventeenth century. In many instances the 
necessity for this was due to the engraver, who 
had not specially prepared his plate for colour- 
printing, and had made no allowance for the 
brilliancy that was to take the place of depth. 
Apropos of brilliancy, there was another point 
the ubiquitous printer was bound never to lose 
sight of, and that was the warming of his plate. 
The inking -table was iron, and had a lamp 
underneath it, so that the colours kept moist 
during the working. The printer worked with 
two tables in front of him, one with this lamp 
or candle underneath, and the other cold ; in 
modern workshops the cold table is of wood. 
He painted on the cold table, moving the plate 
now and again to the other, as it were for 
refreshing. This method ensured the most 
brilliant results, but the printer who employed 
it required with his other talents something of 
the instinct that distinguishes the chef de cuisine^ 
for if the plate were over-done or under-done, 
over-warmed so that the colours became smudged, 
or under-warmed so that they failed to give their 
full value of tone in the printing, the dish was 
spoilt and the palate disappointed. 

The whole of the foregoing work had to be 
done afresh for every impression that was pro- 
duced ! 


Briefly summarised, the above is the art, 
which, long sought for, and nearly discovered 
in the first half of the eighteenth century, finally 
arrived at a beautiful maturity under the excep- 
tional circumstances that distinguished its final 

That, notwithstanding the knowledge of 
" how it was done," no modern work equals the 
old is due to some of the factors mentioned in 
the Preface. Time, which has subdued and 
softened the colours, and the tint and texture 
of the beautiful old hand-made paper, are pre- 
eminent amongst these. Others are the use of 
photogravure instead of stipple-engraved plates, 
and the loss of certain combinations of printing- 

Among the questions which amateurs of 
colour-prints are constantly asking the dealers 
and each other is one as to the existence oi proof s 
in colour. I can only put forward a personal 
theory which grows constantly more defined. 
This is, that the very earliest proofs of the finest 
stipple- engravings were hardly ever in colour, 
and that, when so-called proofs in colour were 
issued, that is impressions before lettering, such 
issue was due to some accidental circumstance, 
some weakening in the plate or feebleness in the 
engraving which was concealed by the help of 
colour. Constant study of old stipple-prints, 
with the continual practice of comparing im- 
pressions, has led me to this conclusion. It 
only refers absolutely, however, to the finest 



and most elaborate stipple-work, executed and 
signed by its legitimate creator. The light 
and fanciful neoclassic designs emanating from 
the School or Factory that supplied this class 
of print come under a different category. These 
were in many instances engraved for colour, and 
for colour only, and the later monochrome im- 
pressions are generally feeble and valueless ; 
their colour was their only raison d'etre. 

A purchaser of colour-prints or a collector of 
stipple-engravings, who is tempted by the word 
" proof," would be well advised to study care- 
fully any given print in its various issues and 
sets, in colour and in monochrome, when I have 
little doubt he will arrive at the same conclusion 
as I have. 

As long as the use of steel facing was un- 
known, a very limited number of impressions 
taken off a copper plate was sufficient to cause it 
to show signs of wear, not perhaps to the same 
extent as a mezzotinted plate, but still quite 
sufficient to prove the matter in dispute. A 
proof, or early impression, is distinguishable not 
only for its brilliancy but for its sharpness of 
outline, not only for its strength but for its soft- 
ness. With the thousands of stipple-engravings 
that have passed through my hands — I am not 
exaggerating — I have not seen a dozen engrav- 
ings of any importance, in colour, which I could 
not match by a stronger impression in mono- 
chrome. Nineteen out of twenty proofs in colour 
that have been shown to me have been impres- 



sions taken off, perhaps before lettering, but 
certainly after a considerable number of earlier 
proofs have first been pulled. This is an im- 
portant matter which every amateur must decide 
for himself, but it is further my opinion that the 
plate was improved for colour -purposes by the 
practice of first taking off a certain number of 
proofs in monochrome ; by this means the sharp- 
ness and hardness are toned down, but the deli- 
cacy and softness remain, and colour more than 
compensates for the little that is missing. A 
real first proof in colour from a strongly engraved 
copper-plate would be coarse and heavy, like the 
well-known " Duchess of York " by Knight ; it 
would need a large admixture of white in the 
ground to bring it down to beauty point. Those 
old colour-printers knew their work too well to 
resort to this admixture when, by taking a dozen 
or so proofs in monochrome, the plate would, as 
it were, by a natural sequence, attain the delicate 
quality from which they could obtain their best 
effects. The exceptions to the rule were, as I 
have primarily said, engravings specially made 
for colour, in which the second biting had never 
been resorted to, and the graver had been used 
not only for the lighter parts but also for the 

A reference to a number of catalogues of 
sales, by auction, of copper-plates and impres- 
sions between 1793, the year when Dickinson's 
stock and plant were sold, and 18 15, when the 
Molteno sale took place, again confirms me in 



my views. In these catalogues, with a single 
exception, the engravings are placed under three 
headings : " proofs," " impressions in colour," 
" prints " ; there is no mention at all of proofs 
in colour. In the one exceptional catalogue the 
engravings are classed under four such headings, 
the first being "proofs in colour." There were 
147 lots at this sale (the goods of Mrs. Diemar, 
at Christie's, 1799), and the fourth heading, 
" proofs in colour," has only three entries ! The 
same thing occurs when the copper- plates are 
sold. " Proofs," " impressions in colour," and 
" prints " follow each other regularly ; but 
" proofs in colour " is an item that does not 

Whilst on the subject of these catalogues, it 
is interesting to note that at the beginning of 
the last century many engravings were sold 
at public auction under the description " printed 
in colours, ready for finishing^ When the great 
Boydell collection was dispersed the prints in 
colours sold separately as " finished " or " un- 
finished." But this was in 18 19, when already 
the workman had lost pride in his work, and was 
content that his crudely-painted, quickly-printed 
plate should receive its final touches at other 
hands. The earlier colour-printers were more 
ambitious ; and to secure their work, and theirs 
only, should be the aim of the collector. 



Bartolozzi — His character as a man and its effect upon his reputation 
as an artist — Some representative prints described and a short 
list given of other desirable specimens of his Colour-Printed 

In the final chapter I intend to catalogue briefly the 
most prominent of those of the stipple-engravers 
who were in the habit of employing the colour- 
printers. In this and the following chapters will 
be found a short account of those men who may 
fairly be considered, at least, as amongst the most 
successful of the workers under the allied flags, 
and who sufficiently exemplify, if they do not 
absolutely define, the scope of the alliance. 

I have not attempted to give a complete list 
of the works of any one artist ; for the value 
and interest of such a list would in no way be 
commensurate with the expenditure of time and 
labour it would involve. It is not within the 
scope of my limited ambition to become the 
Challoner Smith of stipple-engravings. 

The public demand for coloured engravings 
during the twenty years from 1780 to 1800 so 
far outstripped the powers of the men best able 



to cope with it, that there was not one amongst 
them but was guilty, at one time or another, of 
falling below, in some cases infinitely below, the 
high-water mark of his talents. I have contented 
myself, therefore, with merely indicating, for the 
benefit of my brother and sister collectors, the 
directions in which they should look for an 
increase of their treasures. When they have 
secured a collection of those incidentally men- 
tioned in the foregoing and following pages ; 
and have added a complete set of " The Cries of 
London," a complete set of " The Months," after 
Hamilton, and a few carefully selected specimens 
after Buck's unequal work, produced early in the 
nineteenth century, which they will have come 
across in the course of their search for those 
prints already mentioned, they will probably 
know quite as much as, or more than, I do of the 
subject they are pursuing, and they will be able to 
cover the rest of the ground without assistance. 

They will then, probably, send the greater 
part of the contents of their portfolios to the 
salerooms, and yearn to diversify their walls with 
mezzotints, after Reynolds, Romney, and George 
Morland, printed in monochrome ! 

I take the engravers in alphabetical order, as 
being simpler for reference than had I arranged 
them chronologically. 

Bartolozzi (Francesco), 1727-18 15, to whom 
the place of honour justly pertains, although he 
was the pupil, and not the pioneer of Ryland, 
was born in Florence. He was the son of a 



goldsmith, and was a student at the Florentine 
Academy under Ignatio Hugford, an historical 
painter of little repute. Cipriani was his fellow- 
pupil and here their lifelong friendship com- 

Bartolozzi learned engraving in Venice under 
Joseph Wagner, with whom he remained six 
years. At the end of his apprenticeship he 
married a lady of good family and removed with 
her to Rome. Apparently not history, romance, 
nor contemporary gossip, not Tuer in his bio- 
graphy, nor Nicholls in his Literary Anecdotes^ 
not Bryan, Redgrave, nor Rose, could find any- 
thing good about this lady except her family. 
Anyway, they all maintain a discreet silence as 
to the married life of the subject of this slight 
memoir. It may be that the list of Madame 
Bartolozzi's advantages actually ended with the 
social position of her family ; it may be that the 
biographers endeavoured to veil the neglect of 
her husband by omitting to relate how far she 
was wronged. But Bartolozzi, when he came 
to London on the invitation of Dalton in 1764, 
left his wife discreetly behind. Bartolozzi, no 
less than Romney and Ryland, seems to have 
looked upon the partnership involved in marital 
ties as one to be dissolved at pleasure. He never 
rejoined his wife, never, so far as we know, 
suggested her joining him in London. Gaetano, 
the only son of the marriage, when he had 
arrived at the age that should have brought dis- 
cretion, followed his father to London ; and he 



succeeded in obtaining, if not the parental love, at 
least the substantial advantages of his father's name, 
to which he added no lustre, and the privileges of 
his father's purse, which he seriously depleted. 

An analysis of Bartolozzi's character, with 
the materials at command, is difficult, if not 
impossible ; an analysis of his work with dis- 
cretion and fairness is hardly easier. He has 
become obscured by reason of a variety of circum- 
stances which, united, spell contradictoriness ; a 
long and awkward combination of syllables for a 
commentator. Sir Joshua Reynolds paints him 
young, handsome, and attractive. Lord Rides- 
dale, in almost the same year, tells an anecdote of 
him that shows him middle-aged, drunken, and 
objectionable in his personal habits. Among the 
specimens of his stipple -work hereinafter de- 
scribed, and which have been selected for descrip- 
tion with the idea of being honestly representative, 
are the charming study of " Lady Elizabeth 
Foster," and the feeble little " Venus Sleeping." 
We know that he engraved " Cly tie," but his magic 
name is also at the bottom of that truly lament- 
able print of Prince William Henry, after West. 
We note the desire for gain leading him to the 
commission of the unpardonable artistic crime of 
signing work which it is impossible he could 
have executed, combined with a lavishness of 
expenditure that lands him eventually, if not in 
beggary, at least in the position of a poor suppliant 
for a poorer pension. 

In order, therefore, for the character and 



position of Bartolozzi to stand out clear and 
sharp against the confusing shadow -curtain of 
time, it is necessary to focus him steadily in the 
light, the only one obtainable, of a personal 
standpoint. And, having collated and marshalled 
conflicting evidence with every possible care, to 
me, at least, the portrait by Reynolds appears an 
idealisation, as are so many of the portraits of the 
great English painter, while the anecdotes of 
Lord Ridesdale and Angelo are definitely illus- 
trative of an individuality with little to charm 
and much to repel. The man who could allow 
Sir Robert Strange's famous attack upon him to 
pass uncontradicted must have been singularly 
phlegmatic, the man who thought so little of 
his reputation that he had no more scruples in 
lending his name than other men had in lending 
a crown, was surely rather obtuse than generous, 
rather dull than deserving. 

Bartolozzi seems to have had none of the 
Italian fervour, none of the Italian passion. 
He was more dexterous than imaginative, more 
fortunate than discriminating. The times were 
with him. There was a demand, and he supplied 
it without endeavouring to raise the standard of 
taste. The patrons of Art were of the type of 
Mrs. Delany, who found Gainsborough " an im- 
postor," and would " have been sorry to have any 
one she loved set forth in such a manner." The 
Society of Arts that elected him a Member, and 
the Royal Academy that confirmed the selection, 
were the same institutions that snubbed Romney, 

1 60 


offended Joseph Wright, and suggested to Wilson 
to change his style in landscape to that of 
Zuccarelli ! 

That Bartolozzi was generous seems to have 
been proved by his many benefit tickets executed 
without payment, but that he understood their 
value better than the public is a point of which 
we need not lose sight. That he was kind- 
hearted may be accepted on the evidence of the 
plate he finished for Ryland, although when we 
remember what he owed to that unfortunate 
man it does not seem a great repayment. But 
that, even if good-natured and kind-hearted, he 
was something less than honourable, and some- 
thing more than unscrupulous, we may gather 
with equal certainty from stronger evidence. 
That he deserted his wife, that he took pupils 
at high figures and used them to " forward " his 
plates, a generic term often implying " execute," 
as well as to perform menial household duties, is 
indubitable. We have not only the flight of 
Benedetti, who eloquently dilates on the reasons 
that led him to this step, to confirm it, but also 
the criticisms of his more celebrated pupil Minasi. 
That he drank to excess has been considered as 
a natural tribute paid to the habits of the country 
that harboured him. But, in very truth, it was 
a sign of the same weakness of character that 
permitted the vagaries of his son Gaetano to pass 
unchecked, until idleness had come to a climax 
in debauchery, and debauchery had inevitably led 
to disease. 

i6i M 


Accepting then, as I cannot avoid, the char- 
acter of Bartolozzi as that of a man, who, without 
ambition, without desire for distinction, disregard- 
ing domestic ties, and ignoring alike the duties 
of a father and the privileges of a citizen, lived 
a life of animal ease, content to provide each 
day for each day's need, a man so featureless, 
so characterless, so insignificant, that he neither 
excited enmity, beyond the mild contempt of 
his apprentices, nor friendship, other than that 
of his countryman and fellow-exile Cipriani ; all 
that remains to be done is to consider the definite 
importance of his work in the history of Art- 

The scope and volume of Bartolozzi's work 
must be first taken into consideration. And this 
because, although it is quite impossible that he 
could have done all, or nearly all, that was attri- 
buted to him, there is a certain definite quality 
about those plates that legitimately bear his 
signature which, being peculiar to this engraver, 
and a copyright with which he could not part, 
entitles him to special recognition. As an histori- 
cal engraver the faults in his character become 
apparent. That he could not or did not trans- 
late honestly, the celebrated set of Holbein heads 
are witnesses, notwithstanding Mr. Tuer's amiable 
endeavour to fasten the blame for the alterations 
on to the publisher. An engraver of char- 
acter, of high integrity, would not have offered 
such a fraud to the public. As well might we 
picture a Sharp or a Strange adding a head-dress 



to a Rubens, a jewelled pendant to a Murillo ; 
or a Valentine Green changing one of Sir 
Joshua's elegant society ladies into a Contadina 
or a Vivandiere. Honest engravers realise that 
their mission is to translate and not to alter. 
This dishonesty of Bartolozzi's was one of his 
weaknesses that made special appeal to the in- 
different draughtsmen and designers of the day. 
It was a sin -stone cast into artistic waters 
making muddy, ever-widening circles. It be- 
came recognised that the engraver should alter 
or improve the designs submitted to him. The 
habit of the Bartolozzi atelier became a tradi- 
tion that his pupils carried on consistently. 
The practice was directly responsible for an 
enormous quantity of very bad workmanship, and 
for an encouragement of amateurism and Henry 
Bunbury contributing directly towards the disre- 
pute into which stipple-engraving ultimately fell. 
But although Bartolozzi had these faults of 
character, faults that justly earned him half a 
century of contempt and neglect, and puts him, 
as an historical engraver, outside the region 
of serious criticism, he has left ample proof that 
character, and not capacity, was to blame, and 
that although his influence and teaching were 
bad, these might very easily have been not only 
good, but invaluable. As a delineator of female 
beauty, as a decorative artist, pure and simple, 
he was unrivalled in his Jtietier. He taught 
speed, carelessness, indifference, but he knew 
beauty and grace and sweetness. Proofs of this 



knowledge are to be found in his line-engravings, 
even in his etchings, certainly in every piece 
of stipple-work for which a generous licence of 
imagination can accept the name with which it 
is signed. The quality that was pre-eminently 
his own, the copyright with which he could 
not part, was a certain sweetness or delicacy, 
a refinement and softness, which, although it 
might easily become, as indeed it did become, 
monotonous, has placed his work beyond that of 
his competitors, and proved him an engraver of 
personality. That, in addition to this sweet- 
ness, and as a preservative of it, he was capable 
of strength, his best work abundantly showed. 
His earlier translations of the great Italian 
Masters prove his capacity before he degenerated 
into a manufacturer of stipple-engravings, and lost 
the artist in the tradesman. It was after he had 
done his best work that he became the master of 
a school, and it is unfortunately in that capacity 
one finds him peculiarly inefficient ; comparing 
so unfavourably with Josiah Wedgwood, with 
Sheraton and Heppelwhite, and other master 

It would not be difficult to find a hundred 
stippled engravings by Bartolozzi, printed in 
colours, all fine and rare and completely justifi- 
able. But they would not be fairly representative 
of his work in this field, and representativeness, 
if nothing else, is what I have sought for in 
the prints I catalogue ; and which I suggest as 
the nucleus of a collection. 



The following may not, perhaps, be repre- 
sentative of Bartolozzi at his absolutely best, 
though " Lady Betty Foster " has certain claims 
to that distinction, nor at his absolutely worst, 
although his "Venus Sleeping" is within sight 
of that possibility, but they are fair examples of 
the work with which he and his pupils were 
associated in the public mind in the great days 
of stipple-engraving. It would be more difficult 
to find an equal difference in the work produced 
under a common name by any artist in wood or 
plaster, bronze or clay. 

Thus, what Bartolozzi could do in stipple- 
work is shown by " Lady Betty Foster," " Lady 
Smith," by the " Countess of Harrington," the 
"Duchess of Devonshire," "Lieutenant Riddell." 
What Bartolozzi should never have done is ex- 
emplified by the " Venus Sleeping " and " Diana 
and Nymphs Bathing"; what neither Bartolozzi 
nor any other engraver need have troubled to do 
is seen in " A Sacrifice to Cupid " and " The 
Triumph of Beauty and Love "; what no one but 
Bartolozzi could have done as well asserts its 
charm in " Contentment " and " Friendship." 
Reference to these will give material to the 
student on which to form his own opinion of 
this engraver. 

The Colour-Printer played an important part 
in the popularity of all these engravings. It is 
not too much to say that the fancy subjects, the 
more peculiarly decorative prints, almost owed 
their existence to him. He made the worst and 



feeblest stipple-work possible, and the best com- 
pletely beautiful. He masked poverty of inven- 
tion, and inadequateness of execution. He added 
a hundred attractions to a process which, in the 
hands of a dullard, had little more artistry than 
a modern photograph. 

And because Bartolozzi and his school sup- 
plied and patronised the atelier of the colour- 
printer, because Bartolozzi was the master who 
read the marriage service over the alliance, even 
if he were not the man who first encouraged 
the engagement, a debt of gratitude is due to 
him, which, with the compound interest accu- 
mulating in a hundred years, may be liberally 
reckoned as sufficiently large to cover the defects 
in his character. No honest critic, with a fine 
example of stipple-engraving printed in colours 
in his hand, and the same stipple- engraving 
printed in monochrome, could fail to admit the 
importance and value of the alliance ; just as the 
very same test applied to a mezzotint, will assure 
him of the contrary. 

It is the history of the courtship and marriage 
of stipple-engraving with colour-printing, that I 
have endeavoured to tell in the foregoing pages. 
The recognition and identification of the legiti- 
mate ofifspring will plead more eloquently than 
the historian for a post-nuptial benediction. 

It can be easily understood that, out of the 
two thousand and odd plates engraved or signed 
by Bartolozzi, a very long list of desirable engrav- 
ings could be collated. A reference to Mr. Tuer's 



catalogue can always be made, however, by any 
collector who wishes to be complete rather than 
exclusive. The few I append are merely an arbi- 
trary selection, but are all beautiful prints, when 
in good condition and early state. 

" Cupid making his Bow," after Correggio ; 
" Countess Spencer " ; " Hope Nursing Love " ; 
" Miss Bingham" ; " Portrait of the Honourable 
Leicester Stanhope " ; " Simplicity " (Miss Theo- 
phila Gwatkin) ; " Venus chiding Cupid " 
" Lord Burghersh," after Sir Joshua Reynolds 
" Countess Spencer," after Gainsborough 
" Miss Farren," signed by Bartolozzi but en- 
graved by Knight ; " Princess Amelia " and 
" Lady G. Bathurst," after Lawrence ; " Lady 
Ashburton," after Downman ; " Letitia," after 
Morland ; " The Birth of Shakespeare " ; " The 
Tomb of Shakespeare " ; " The Shepherdess of 
the Alps " ; " Griselda " ; " Damon and Delia" ; 
" Damon and Musidora " ; " Hebe " ; " Cor- 
nelia, mother of the Gracchi " ; " Zeuxis com- 
posing the Picture of Juno " ; " Psammetichus 
in love with Rhodope " ; " Eurydice " and 
" Cordelia," after Angelica Kauffmann ; " Vis- 
countess Bulkeley " ; " Mrs. Abington," after 
Cosway ; several miniatures after Sam Shelley, 
notably " The Family of the Duke of Marl- 
boro' " ; " The Libertine Reclaimed," and " The 
Prelude to Matrimony," after Harding ; *' Mrs. 
Crouch," after Romney ; " Spring," " Summer," 
" Autumn," and " Winter," after Wheatley. 

There are also a very large number after 



Hamilton (Bartolozzi was peculiarly successful 
with the small children subjects after this painter), 
and an even larger number after Cipriani, of 
mythological tendency, of which the following 
are not the least attractive : " Lais " ; " Hector 
and Andromache"; "The Parting of Achilles 
and Briseis"; " Chryses restored to her Father"; 
" Nymph of Immortality crowning the bust of 
Shakespeare"; "Fortune." He also executed 
"A St. James's Beauty," and "A St. Giles's 
Beauty," after Benwell ; and some charming 
prints after Singleton. 

" Lady Jane Dundas," after Hoppner, is good. 
" Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire," and " Isa- 
bella, Duchess of Rutland," after Nixon, are two 
miniatures that no collector could afford to be 

With certain painters Bartolozzi was particu- 
larly happy, but he never could translate or 
comprehend Peters, and Morland's idiosyncrasies 
hardly suited him better. Some of his most 
charming colour-prints are from his own designs ; 
and he also seems to have excelled in making 
water-colour " extracts " from the works of con- 
temporary painters for the guidance of engravers 
and colour-printers. 



The Stipple-Engravers and their works — Burke, Chcesman, Collycr, 
Conde, Dickinson, Gaugain, Hogg 


Burke (Thomas), 1749-18 15, was, in the opinion 
of many experts, a stipple-engraver second only 
in value and excellence to Bartolozzi. As a 
matter of fact, Angelica Kauffmann has left it on 
record that she preferred his translation of her 
pictures to that of the popular Florentine. Burke 
was an Irishman, and possessed the national versa- 
tility. He had two distinct styles in stipple, 
and he also engraved in mezzotint, which he had 
studied under Dixon. It was apparently through 
his studies in mezzotint that he learned to use the 
stipple-point in such a manner as to produce 
almost the velvety effect of the finer art. His 
dots are very close together, and his prints have 
an exceptional richness and depth that make 
them almost independent of the colour-printer. 
In red, in bistre, in black, they have alike depth 
and tone. '* Lady Rushout " and " Rinaldo and 
Armida " are the two of his works that contem- 



porary experts considered to be his masterpieces 
in this branch of the art. Like the majority of 
so-called pairs, they were issued separately, and 
their connection was merely arbitrary. Dickinson 
published the first, and Thomas Macklin the 
second, but finally Dickinson acquired both plates, 
and they were sold together in 1794 (when he 
gave up business and disposed of his stock by 
auction), "Lady Rushout " realising ^9 :15s., 
and " Rinaldo and Armida " £15- ^ S^-y which 
were very high prices for worn plates in those 
days. It was after this sale that the former 
plate was altered and the title " Contentment 
and Innocence " substituted for " Lady Rushout 
and Daughter." These two beautiful prints are, 
perhaps because the best known, still the most 
highly esteemed of Burke's stipple-engravings. 
But they are equalled, if not excelled, by two 
others entitled " Cupid and Cephisa." 

" Cupid and Ganymede " and "Jupiter and 
Calisto " are a pair exceedingly rare in colours, 
but almost as beautiful in bistre, particularly in 
the proof state. 

No collection of stipple-engravings is complete 
without specimens from the work of Thomas 
Burke, and it is impossible to have too many of 
them. The four miniatures of " Lady Rushout " 
and her three daughters, after Plimer ; " Una," 
and its companion " Abra " ; " Cupid disarmed 
by Euphrosine " ; " Cupid binding Aglaia " ; 
" Alexander resigning his mistress Campaspe to 
Apelles " ; " Cleopatra throwing herself at the 



feet of Augustus " ; " Henry and Emma " (an 
illustration from Prior's well-known poem, and 
a favourite subject with the engravers of the 
day) ; " Conjugal Love " ; and " Angelica and 
Sacriponte," are all from Angelica Kauffmann's 

" The Duchess of Richmond," after Down- 
man ; a charming " Cupid " after Bartolozzi, 
and another after Reinagle ; a portrait of" Mrs. 
Billington," after De Koster ; one of " Mrs. 
Siddons," after Bateman; and "George, Prince 
of Wales," after Cosway, are other interesting en- 
gravings by Burke. I have also seen a charming, 
and certainly rare, proof in colour of " Louisa, 
reigning Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt," after 
Schroeder, which is thoroughly worthy of a 
collector's attention. 

The print described as " Lady Rushout and 
Daughter" depicts Rebecca, Lady Rushout,whose 
husband was created Lord Northwick in 1797. 
She was the daughter of Humphrey Bowles of 
Wanstead, brother of the " George " to whom 
so many of the Kauffmann prints, including the 
one under consideration, are dedicated. The 
" daughter " is Anne Rushout, who died un- 
married in 1849. Lady Rushout's eldest son 
and heir carried on worthily the traditions of his 
family, and became a notable art-patron and col- 
lector. He was the second Lord Northwick, 
and, when still in early manhood, he attracted 
the liking of that fine old connoisseur. Sir 
William Hamilton of " Emma " fame, from whom 



he seems to have acquired both taste and desire. 
He lived until 1859, and in that year the sale of 
his collection at Christie's was the art event of 
the year. 

Lady Rushout was one of the beauties of her 
day. Cosway painted her with long ringlets, in 
a white dress and cap, a neckerchief at the 
throat with a frill above it, the dress being cut 
in a V. Plimer, Cosway's great rival, also 
painted her at the same time that he executed 
the celebrated pictures of her three daughters. 
She is more matronly in this miniature, but 
hardly less beautiful, wearing a black dress and 
powdered hair. 

The first state of the print is before all letters ; 
but I have never seen it in colours. The next 
state has Angelica's name without the " n," and 
this is colour-printed. There were several other 
states, as the plates were popular, and went on 
printing, with various alterations and re-touchings, 
right into the nineteenth century. 

Collectors who have a passion for identifying 
the subjects of their prints will be interested 
to know that the Burke engraving entitled 
" Rinaldo and Armida " has often been alluded 
to as " Lady Hamilton and Lord Nelson." But, 
although Armida is decidedly reminiscent of one 
of the most celebrated Romneys, there is no re- 
semblance to be found between Rinaldo and the 
hero of Trafalgar. 

The story of Rinaldo, the Christian knight, 
and the sorceress Armida, the niece of Idraotes, 



Prince of Damascus, and famed as the most 
beautiful woman of the East, is, of course, the 
well - known story from Tasso's Gerusale?nme 
Liberata. The moment chosen for illustration is 
when Carlo and Ubaldo, the two knights whom 
Godfrey has despatched in search of Rinaldo, find 
him in the arms of his enchantress. 

Unmoved and calm proceed the noble knights, 
Steeled 'gainst the spell of this surpassing Fair. 
But where an opening the thick branches leave 
They turn their eyes and see . . . 

Her parted veil betrays her breast to view^. 
Her fair hair wantons in the summer air, 
A sweet smile glistens in her soft'ning eye. 
With witching grace she o'er him bends. 
He 'gainst her knee the while, pillows his head 
And lifts to hers his face . . . 

This story was the theme of Handel's opera 
Rinaldo, produced at the Queen's Theatre in 
the Haymarket in 171 1. It had a phenomenal 
run, initiated its composer's fame in England, 
and excited a passion of enthusiasm in the town. 
Rinaldo and Armida is also the title of the 
play founded on Tasso's story by John Dennis, 
performed in Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1699. But 
there is no doubt, and I think the quoted verses 
prove it, that it was direct to the poet that 
Angelica Kauffmann turned for her subject- 
matter. This engraving is apparently the natural 
pair to " Lady Rushout and Daughter," although 
the Dickinson print of the " Duchess of Devon- 
shire and Lady Duncannon " is sometimes sold 
as a pendant. 



The earliest proofs were in bistre, but the 
plate was colour-printed without any alteration 
having taken place in title or inscription. 


Cheesman (Thomas), 1760 to about 1834. 
He was one of Bartolozzi's apprentices, and very 
successful in engraving for colour. Cheesman 
seems to have been of a restless disposition, for 
in the course of a very few years his address is 
noted as 40 Oxford Street, 72 Newman Street, 
and 28 Francis Street. He published from each 
of these addresses, and issued the works of 
various engravers. He also seems to have prac- 
tised as a painter, for his name occurs as an 
exhibitor with the Society of British Artists as 
late as 1834. He executed several portraits for 
the Thespian Magazine. 

Among his best works, perhaps, may be 
reckoned " Adelaide," " Content," " Maternal 
Affection," and " Love and Beauty," from his 
own designs ; Lady Hamilton as " The Spinster," 
Miss Vernon as " The Sempstress," both after 
Romney ; and " Lord Grantham and his 
Brothers," after Reynolds. 

" The Spinster," "The Sempstress," and " The 
Reverie " have proved popular modern reproduc- 
tions. " Mrs. Mountain," " Mrs. Humphreys," 
"Miss Waddy," and "Miss Bloomfield," after 
Buck, are constantly to be met with. A portrait 
of " Hugh Henry John Seymour," a miniature 



after Cosway, is a charming print. " Hannah, 
Marchioness of Townshend," after Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, is a very attractive portrait. 

Other prints by Cheesman frequently to be 
seen are several of the Holbein Heads, " Perdita " 
and " Beatrice " after Westall, " Venus and Cupid " 
after Titian, " The Lady's Last Stake " after 
Hogarth, " Prince Octavius," Miss O'Neill as 
"Isabella," "Mrs. Sharp," "Mrs. Gibbs," 
" Spring " and " Summer," " Plenty," " Ermi- 
nia," and " Nymphs Bathing." 

" Maternal Affection " is from his own design, 
and was published by himself at his Newman 
Street establishment. The dress of the mother is 
red in the early impressions, but I have seen it in 
green and in blue. The same date is on them all, 
but the finest are undoubtedly the red ones. The 
earliest proof-state known is in colours. " Mater- 
nal Affection " was a popular title, and many 
contemporary prints were published under this 
description. While on the subject of titles, it is 
worth noting that a very large proportion of these 
were borrowed from the poems or extracts in the 
Cabinet of Genius, and that the poets who figured 
most largely in the pages of that compendium 
contributed in the same proportion to the inscrip- 
tions to the prints. 


CoLLYER (Joseph), 1 748- 1 8 27. He suffered 
under the disadvantage of being a pupil ot 



Anthony Walker, a printseller's hack with a 
heavy hand, who assisted Woollett in the figures 
of his " Niobe." Anthony Walker was a volu- 
minous engraver who enjoyed a contemporary 
renown that posterity is far from endorsing. 
Fortunately, Collyer soon emancipated himself 
from pupilage, but, with much that was wholly 
admirable, he unhappily retained throughout his 
work in life a tendency to the same want of deli- 
cacy that distinguished his master. Even in his 
" Mrs. Fitzherbert," which is popularly sup- 
posed to be his best plate, he shows some traces 
of this defect. In " Miss Farren," however, he 
becomes more worthy both of himself and of 
the charming artist whom he translates. Briefly 
summarising, I should say that strength and 
vigour were the predominating virtues of the 
Collyer stipple-prints, and a tendency to coarse- 
ness their most prominent fault. But, as there 
are several exceptions to the latter, and none to 
the former, I feel justified in giving Joseph 
Collyer a very high place amongst the engravers 
in the stipple manner. 

Interesting plates of Collyer's are the follow- 
ing. Portraits of " The Prince of Wales " and 
" The Princess of Wales with the infant Princess 
Charlotte," after Russell ; " Felina " (Offie 
Palmer), and another fancy picture of the same 
lady, and a " Venus and Cupid," after Sir Joshua 
Reynolds ; " George, Duke of Montague," after 
Beechey ; " Sir Charles Grey," after Sir Thomas 
Lawrence ; and " Children in the Wood," after 



Stothard. CoUyer also executed a fine portrait 
of " Dr. Willis " after Russell, and another of 
" William Whitehead " (the Poet Laureate from 
1758 to 1785). A remarkably fine pair of prints 
by Collyer are " Sir Joseph and Lady Banks," 
also after Russell. A large plate that he en- 
graved in line, for the Boydells, of the " Volun- 
teers of Ireland," after Wheatley, is peculiarly 
interesting at the moment, though line hardly 
suited Collyer's special talents ; when working 
in it he lost his boldness and became feeble, 
almost inept. 

No collector of eighteenth-century engravings 
will be content without a Mrs. Fitzherbert. "The 
fierce light that beats upon a throne " beat upon 
the head, unprotected by a crown, of George 
IV.'s ill-used wife, or pampered mistress. For, 
that she had the unique distinction of occupying, 
simultaneously, both positions, there is little 
doubt to-day. The story of Mrs. Fitzherbert is 
unique, not to be matched, even in the annals of 
the Stuarts and the early Hanoverians. She is 
an interesting character-study, most happily por- 
trayed in Mr. Wilkin's recent book, and in his 
pages she stands out amidst the storm of calumny, 
caricature, and invective in a strong and peculiar 

When the Prince first met her she had already 
had two husbands, Edward Welch of Lulworth 
Castle, and Thomas Fitzherbert of Swynnerton, 
Stafford. She should have possessed sufficient 
experience to guard her from the dangers which 

177 N 


the fascinations of the Prince's person or position 
possessed for a debutante in the opera dont le 
libretto liest presque rien. Even in these early 
days the Prince was recklessly prodigal in his 
love. But his promises, that afterwards became 
proverbial, were still accepted as currency. Mrs. 
Robinson had become bankrupt in fame and 
fortune through accepting them as such. Her 
doubly widowed successor was prepared, appar- 
ently, to take nothing less than cash. Cash 
in this instance meant a marriage certificate. 
Unmoved by all the legitimate armoury of 
the seducer, passionate protestations, hysterical 
despair, and attempted suicide, she stood out for 
her price. The Prince, fully aware that even 
his cash was counterfeit coin, that he could not 
legally tie himself to a Catholic and a commoner, 
paid under protest. It was a sordid transaction 
on both sides, lacking the romance of the Robin- 
son escapade, and the humour of the Hilligsberg 
incident. For the original union one can find 
little sympathy ; ambition on the one side and 
unscrupulousness on the other robbed it of 
glamour and poetry. But, as in so many untold 
stories and unwritten poems, the drama of this 
marriage came after its consummation. Mrs. 
Fitzherbert was a woman of good parts, of lively 
intelligence, of fascinating manner. The circum- 
stances of her life, her early marriage, her hus- 
band's sudden death, her second widowhood, had 
taught her the bitterness of the world. She was 
hard on the outside, but she was soft at the core ; 



there was an instinct of womanliness, of mother- 
liness, for which she had had no outlet. She 
accepted the establishment the Prince offered 
her. What she did not accept, what she had 
not bargained for, what altered the whole com- 
plexion of her life, and became at once her 
greatest happiness and supremest misery, was 
that she began genuinely to love the weak and 
dissipated boy whom the harsh and unwise 
training of his ignorant and narrow-minded 
parents had left so unfitted for the temptations 
of his high position, and so unarmed against the 
flatteries of his injudicious friends. She learned 
to love him with a real mother-love ; the love 
that induced her in the end to relinquish in his 
interest all the rights she had once been so eager 
to obtain. She almost forgave Fox, she made 
no appeal to the public, and none to the justice 
of George III., when her royal husband's second 
ill-fated union was arranged. By that time love 
had overgrown her ambition and made green 
and sweet the worn places in her character ; she 
wanted nothing but any place in his life that he 
would give her freely, and in which it would 
not be to his hurt to let her rest. His feelings 
for her had altered too ; something of his passion 
was satiated perhaps, but in its place had come 
respect, appreciation, a desire for her companion- 
ship that was independent of her sex, and that 
lasted until, with his intellect weakened by dis- 
sipation and disease, the insidious Marchioness 
of Hertford, aided by the infamous Countess of 



Jersey, took the dregs of his existence into her 
hands. There is little doubt that the influence 
Mrs. Fitzherbert exercised over the Heir- Apparent 
was the best his misspent days ever knew, and 
that the esteem in which she was held at Court 
was justified always by her conduct. She has 
been unfortunate alike in her apologists and her 
detractors. To present her character and her 
story in such a manner as to do her full justice 
needed a chronicler, if not more honest, at least 
more sympathetic and imaginative, and less scien- 
tific in his methods, than Mr. Langdale. And in 
Mr. Wilkin she has at length achieved him. 

The other famous Collyer print is of Eliza- 
beth Farren (Countess of Derby). Elizabeth 
Farren was one of the first to find the road, now 
so well worn, from the stage to the peerage. 
She was the daughter of an unqualified, 
unsuccessful, presumably incompetent, Cork 
surgeon, who had a fancy for low company and 
a taste for the theatre. I do not think it is 
unfair to his memory to describe him as dis- 
solute, idle, and drunken. He was very glad 
when his children were able to relieve him from 
the burden not only of their support, but even 
of his own. "Eliza" Farren (the "Elizabeth" 
came later) played juvenile parts in barns and 
country play-houses when she was eleven years 
old. She continued to wander about the country 
with a strolling company until she was nearly 
fifteen. She had pseudo-ladylike manners, and 
a certain air of refinement which eventually led 

1 80 


to her successful debut in London. Mrs. Abing- 
ton was declining in years, and the fickle public 
was glad to turn to a fresh favourite. Fox, how- 
ever, who was something of an epicure in these 
matters, tells us that she played " Nancy Lovel " 
in Coleman's tragedy of The Suicide in tights ; 
and, to Bowdlerise somewhat his phrases, " she 
betrayed in this costume her great inferiority to 
her rival." Indeed, neither in the Downman 
drawing, of which the engraving is a replica, 
nor in the better-known full-length after Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, signed by Bartolozzi, but 
engraved by Charles Knight, does she give the 
impression of physical attractiveness. Tall, thin, 
drooping, affected, she might be the Lydia 
Languish of the stage. The plate of this latter 
famous print, by the way, of which I give some 
details in another place, was sold at Jeffrey's sale 
in 1803. The proofs and prints were sold at 
three shillings each, and the coloured impressions 
at nine shillings. At a sale at Messrs. Sotheby, 
Wilkinson's, in the year 1902, the record price 
of one hundred and eight guineas was given for 
a so-called proof in monochrome, signed by 
Bartolozzi ! 

The stage was only a halting-place for Eliza- 
beth Farren. She left it in 1797, making her 
last appearance as " Lady Teazle " ; and she 
married Lord Derby on the ist of May in the 
same year, his wife having been dead nearly five 
weeks. The public apparently was neither sur- 
prised nor shocked. The morality of actresses 



was not such a burning question in the eighteenth 
century as it has become in the twentieth. 

This marriage called forth several " memoirs " 
of the new Countess, one of them a very sneering 
account of Miss Farren's career by Petronius 
Arbiter, Esq., which went through at least seven 
editions, provoking a curious reply entitled "The 
Memoirs of the present Countess of Derby, 
rescued by truth from the assassinating pen of 
Petronius Arbiter, and proving the stage, from 
the patronage of the most exalted personages, to 
have been always considered as a school for 
morality. By Scriptor Veritatis, London, 1797." 
But the Monthly Mirror was Miss Farren's cham- 
pion, denouncing her detractors, and assuring the 
public that " the conduct of Miss Farren in 
private life is perfectly irreproachable ; her duti- 
ful and affectionate attachment to her mother is 
well known, and pronounced the best eulogium 
on the qualities of her heart." Referring to her 
marriage, it was quaintly added, " It is meet that 
virtue and talent should be thus rewarded, and 
the stage, by her promotion to the Peerage, will 
gain in ultimate respectability what it may lose 
in immediate consequence." 

Mrs. Inchbald tells the anecdote, so often 
repeated with variations, of an accident that 
happened at the theatre some weeks before Miss 
Farren's final retirement from it. A fire broke 
out at the Haymarket half an hour before the 
curtain drew up. One of the supers, a well- 
known woman of the town, ran in haste from 



her own dressing-room, which was full of smoke, 
to that of Mrs, Wells. Mrs. Wells, whose 
establishment with Major Topham was an open 
secret, was shocked and horrified at the intrusion. 
She withdrew in haste to Miss Farren's apart- 
ment, crying, " What would Major Topham say 
if I was to remain in such company ? " Miss 
Farren flew out with equal precipitancy, exclaim- 
ing, " What would Lord Derby say if I was to 
be found in yours .? " 

Gillray and Rowlandson, and all the carica- 
turists of the day, made merry at the expense of 
the new Countess. The best-known print, per- 
haps, is the one entitled " A Connoisseur at 
Christie's " ; she, very attenuated and affected, is 
gazing through her lorgnette at the walls ; the 
Earl, very short, and stout, and plebeian-looking, 
is proudly piloting her. She seems to have led 
a perfectly respectable life after her marriage, 
and she had ultimately the gratification of being 
received at Court. Cosway, as well as Sir 
Joshua, painted her for her doting husband. In 
the Cosway miniature she is represented in 
a white dress, with meagre charms very liber- 
ally displayed, her hair very curly, and her 
attitude very affected, her first finger on her 

The drawing from which Joseph Collyer 
produced this fine print was one of a set of four 
painted for the scenery of the Richmond House 
Theatre. Richmond House was the rallying- 
place for all the arts. It was built by the 



celebrated Earl of Burlington, and had been 
enlarged and altered by Wyatt. It was there 
that the third Duke of Richmond formed the 
collection of busts from the antique, which he 
threw open, under the most liberal auspices, to 
art-students ten years before the Royal Academy 
School testified to the necessity for such assist- 
ance. He bought a small house adjoining his 
own, and fitted it up as a theatre, and for two 
winters, at least, all the aristocracy went theatre- 
mad, and jostled on each other's heels for invita- 
tions to take part in the performances either as 
players or spectators. George III. was amongst 
the most eager, and Peter Pindar characteristi- 
cally celebrates the punctuality of his attend- 
ance : — 

So much with saving wisdom are you taken, 
Drury and Covent Garden seem forsaken ; 
Since cost attendeth these theatric borders. 
Content you go to Richmond House with orders. 

He describes it maliciously as "a pretty little nut- 
shell of a house fitted up for the convenience of 
ladies and gentlemen of quality who wish to 
expose themselves." The revels were brought 
to an abrupt end by the destruction by fire of 
Richmond House, 21st December 1791. It was 
rebuilt, but by the time it was finished, society 
had found another fad, or another entourage for it, 
and the theatre was not refitted. 




Cond£ (John) worked between 1785 and 
1800. Conde is generally reckoned as an Eng- 
lish engraver, for it was in England that the 
greater part of his life was spent and by far the 
largest proportion of his work was executed. 
But in an engraving published in 1791, repre- 
senting the much-discussed Chevaliere D'Eon as 
" Minerva," he describes himself as a French 
artist, and states that he designed it " as a monu- 
ment to English generosity and French grati- 
tude." The occasion of the generosity and the 
cause of the gratitude are alike unexplained. 

Conde's principal engravings were after 
designs made for him by Cosway. He made a 
speciality of having his engravings printed in 
pale delicate tints, and he added to their effect 
by enclosing them in frame-like borders. These 
borders were called G/omisages, and were in- 
vented in 1768 by the well-known French 
engraver Glomy. A somewhat similar border, 
however, had been used ten years earlier, at the 
inspiration of Lord Cardigan, and both Horace 
Walpole and Mrs. Delany speak of the " Cardi- 
gan border for prints " with appreciation. 

Some of the most charming work by Conde 
is to be found amongst the miniatures he engraved 
for the Thespian Magazine, znd. indeed the delinea- 
tion of the stage and society beauties of the day 
seems to have had an irresistible fascination for 



him. He executed the well-known miniature 
of Mrs. Robinson under the title of " Melania," 
of which a modern engraving, colour- printed, 
was brought out recently by Messrs. Sabin. 
The Prince's mistresses were favourite subjects 
with the contemporary engravers. Perhaps the 
most notable portrait of Mrs. Robinson, by the 
way, and certainly one completely characteristic 
of the taste of the day, was the one entitled 
" Venus," an undraped full length with cestus, 
by and after J. K. Sherwin. Even before poor 
Perdita had solaced her broken heart in the open 
arms of Major Tarleton, and was pouring out 
her woes in indifferent verse and worse prose, 
Conde was engraving her successor for the 
pleasure of the populace, which followed with 
avid curiosity the easy tastes of their fickle 
Prince. His print of Mrs. Fitzherbert, after 
Cosway, is one of the best known of his works. 
Whether it is a good likeness or not it is impos- 
sible to say, but it differs very materially from the 
Collyer print. Certainly the first represents her 
in the late prime of life, whilst the Cosway draw- 
ing was executed by command in the first days of 
her union with " Florizel, the Faithless." Which- 
ever lineaments are the more faithful, they both 
differ as much from Mrs. Robinson as they do 
from Mademoiselle Hilligsberg, the third of the 
Prince's mistresses who engaged Conde's graving- 
tool. The trio prove, if nothing else, the eclectic 
nature of the Prince's tastes. Unfortunately, 
the plate of Conde's Mrs. Fitzherbert is still in 

1 86 


existence, and weak modern impressions, mono- 
chrome or painted, are always in the market to 
entrap the unwary and to disgust the connoisseur. 
In addition to the above-mentioned intimates 
of the Prince, other interesting women whom 
Conde engraved were "Mrs. Jackson," "Mrs. 
Tickell," "Miss Linley " (Mrs. Sheridan), 
" Mrs. Bouverie," " Lady Manners," " Madame 
Du Barry," " Mrs. Bligh," and the " Duchess of 
York." (The " Duchess of York " is from his 
own design.) " Minerva directing the Arrows 
of Cupid" and the well-known " Leda " are all 
after Cosway ; the latter shares with the " Mrs. 
Fitzherbert " the disadvantage of constant re- 
issue. " The Hobby-Horse," signed by Cosway, 
but probably executed by Maria, though prettily 
coloured, is woefully defective in drawing. A 
portrait of " Baron Wenzel," the oculist, shows 
that it was not only female beauty that Conde 
was capable of treating ; it is a wholly admirable 
production in both the engraving and the print- 
ing. That he was also successful with children 
is proved by his plate of " Mr. Horace Beck- 
ford." An engraving that he executed from an 
original drawing by Mrs. Jockell, entitled 
" Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament," is rare and 


Dickinson (William), 1746- 1823, was per- 
haps better known as a mezzotinter than as a 



stipple - engraver. Dodd mentions him as a 
" follower of the style of James McArdell " ; 
and Chaloner Smith, in his British Mezzotinto 
Portraits, gives a list of ninety-five by William 
Dickinson. But, whether mezzotinter or stipple- 
engraver, Dickinson was always above the average 
of his contemporaries. He started his profes- 
sional life as a caricaturist, in which genre " The 
Long Minuet at Bath," '' Billiards," and " The 
Chop House," after Bunbury, are good examples. 
It was only after having gained the premium of 
the Society of Arts for a mezzotint portrait in 
1767 that he abandoned the humorous, and 
became a serious professional engraver and pub- 
lisher. In this latter capacity he becomes some- 
what of a puzzle to a chronicler. Whether he 
preferred fortune to fame, or fame to fortune, is 
obscured by the fact that not only did he permit 
Bartolozzi or any other popular engraver to sign 
the plates that he engraved, but he himself 
signed indifferently those of C. Knight and 
others. A prominent example of Dickinson's 
irregularity in this respect is the famous " Bun- 
bury " print of " The Gardens of Carlton House 
with Neapolitan Ballad Singers," 1785. This 
print is supposed to portray the first meeting of 
the Prince of Wales with Mrs. Fitzherbert. The 
event was in 1784. The print was published 
1785. She is in widow's dress, and he is shading 
his eyes as if dazzled at the sight of such ex- 
quisite loveliness. It is a very interesting print, 
and a great favourite of mine, but there is the 



Strongest internal evidence of its being the work 
of Charles Knight and not of Dickinson. In 
many old sale catalogues, however, it is given as 
by Bartolozzi ! 

In addition to the unacknowledged partner- 
ship in his engravings, Dickinson had at various 
times two business partners, and both of them 
were notable men : Thomas Watson the engraver, 
and William Austin, the Royal drawing-master. 
But either his disposition was cantankerous, or 
his business abilities were less than his business 
ambitions, for in 1794 he sold his stock of pic- 
tures and removed to Paris, where he remained 
until his death in 1823. 

Among other stipple -prints which must be 
attributed to Dickinson are '" St. Cecilia " (Mrs. 
Sheridan), "Perdita" (Mrs. Robinson, with a 
large hat and feathers), "Maternal Affection" 
(Lady Melbourne), after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
"The Country Girl" (Miss Horneck), "Of 
such is the Kingdom of God," " The Spirit of a 
Child " (these two are monstrosities both in 
colours and in monochrome), and " Lydia " and 
" Sylvia," after Peters, — both great favourites of 
mine — " Andromache weeping over the Ashes of 
Hector," after Kauffmann, and a miniature of 
"Isabella Stanhope" (Countess of Sefton), after 

The print of the " Duchess of Devonshire 
and Viscountess Duncannon " is perhaps the most 
popular of Dickinson's stipple-engravings. Lady 
Duncannon, afterwards Countess of Bessborough, 



was always overshadowed by the superior charms 
of her celebrated sister, Georgiana, Duchess of 
Devonshire. Her portrait is amongst the six 
drawn by Downman for the scenery of Rich- 
mond House Theatre, and a very charming print 
it has made. 


Gaugain (Thomas), 1748- 1809. — Thomas 
Gaugain was born at Abbeville in France. He 
came to England with his family and studied 
painting under Houston. He exhibited at the 
Royal Academy from 1778 to 1782, but he 
started engraving in stipple in 1780, lured by 
the success that Ryland was achieving. Finding 
it more profitable than painting, he finally 
abandoned the brush for the stipple-point a 
year or two later. He experimentalised with 
colour-printing in many ways ; first in the old 
chiaroscuro method, which he applied to stipple- 
engravings. " Hudibras and Sidrophel," after 
Hogarth, which he published in 1782, was one 
of the earliest and, for some reasons, most 
interesting of these experiments. " Venus lend- 
ing her Cestus to Juno," after Angelica Kauff- 
mann, was another. These were printed from 
four plates. In the same year he engraved and 
printed from his own design "January and May " 
and "The Wife of Bath": both of which he 
printed from two plates. These by no means 
exhaust the variety that he attempted to bring 



into the already established industry of printing 
in colours from one plate. In " The Amorous 
Buck," for instance, he used etching, mezzotint, 
and aquatint on one plate. Altogether he, and 
his brother P. Gaugain, deserve the closest 
study from any one interested in the work of the 
period, because they refused to accept the method 
that Ryland had introduced, and Bartolozzi and 
Seigneuer were practising, and by traversing in a 
roundabout way much of the road that had been 
travelled before, arrived ultimately at exactly the 
same point. 

While speaking of " The Wife of Bath " and 
"January and May," it may be of interest to 
note that when they are found with margins, 
two curious marks are generally to be seen on 
the paper. These are really register marks, but 
as I have heard various explanations given of 
them by dealers, and in salerooms, the point 
seemed worthy of note. 

Gaugain published at 4 Little Compton Street, 
Soho ; 3 Denmark Street, Soho ; and Manor 
Street, Chelsea. When the vast over-production 
of these colour-printed stipple-engravings con- 
duced to the many sales of stocks and plates that 
began to take place in 1793, Gaugain was among 
the first to announce himself as leaving offprint- 
selling, and to put his stock up by auction. It 
was sold by Gerrard of Litchfield Street, Soho, 
and much curious information is to be gathered 
from the catalogue. 

Amongst the earliest colour-prints issued by 



Gaugain were " Annette " and " Lubin " (illus- 
trations from Marmontel's Moral Tales, ovals 
from his own design), which were exhibited at 
the Free Society of Artists in 1783. His brother, 
P. Gaugain, was for a short time associated with 
him in business. A certain number of impres- 
sions of the celebrated " Dancing Dogs " and 
" Guinea Pigs," after Morland, which he en- 
graved, have at the foot " Printed in colour by 
P. Gaugain." This is worth noting, as the in- 
stances are comparatively rare where the colour- 
printer is allowed this well-deserved recognition. 
At Gaugain's sale in 1793 the plates of these two 
with 52 proofs, 59 prints, and 13 in colours of 
the first ; 52 proofs, 78 prints, and 20 in colours 
of the second, realised £i2j. The original 
drawings fetched £2.0. These plates had 
immense success with the public, 500 copies 
being sold within the first few weeks of their 
issue. P. Gaugain engraved, and subsequently 
became a printseller, on his own account. All 
the following works, however, are attributed to 
Thomas, who was incomparably the superior 

Perhaps the most admired stipple-engraving 
of Gaugain is " An Airing in Hyde Park," after 
Dayes, published in 1793, a proof from which 
easily fetches £^0 to-day. The pair to it is 
engraved by Soiron, and entitled " The Prome- 
nade in St. James's Park." Beyond " An Airing 
in Hyde Park " and several small children- 
subjects after Hamilton, the two prints of 

. 192 


" Louisa," after Morland, are now amongst the 
most sought after of Gaugain's work. They 
illustrate " The Tale of Louisa " in the poems 
and essays by Miss Bowdler of Bath. Among 
my own favourites, however, are the small oval, 
" Childish Impatience," after Cosway, printed in 
two colours, and the two circular prints " Youth " 
and " Childhood," after Prince Hoare ; " Lady 
Catherine Manners, daughter of the Duke of 
Rutland," after Sir Joshua Reynolds ; " The 
Lass of Levingstone," and " How Sweet's the 
Love that meets Return " (a pair of ovals after 
Morland, illustrating a song of Allan Ramsay's). 

The latter of these prints, in the first state, was 
called "Jenny and Roger." At the sale before 
alluded to, the plates with 22 proofs, 102 prints, 
and 31 in colours of the first; 22 proofs, 113 
prints, and 33 in colours of the second, fetched 
nineteen guineas, whilst the original drawing 
was sold for two guineas. " Courtship " and 
" Matrimony," companion prints from designs 
by Milbourne ; " Rural Music," " Rural Con- 
templation," after Westall, and " The Sheltered 
Lamb," after Hamilton, have had their admirers. 

Other well - known stipple - engravings by 
Gaugain are the set of ten after Northcote, 
executed by him in conjunction with Hellyer, 
entitled " Diligence and Dissipation," " A Girl 
returning from Milking," after Westall ; " The 
Showman," "The Bird Catcher," and "The 
Kite Compleated," after Barney ; " An old 
Woman opening a Gate," " A Lady with her 

193 o 


Children in the Garden," from his own designs ; 
"Boy Mending Net," after Westall ; "An 
English Fruit Girl," and "An English Milk 
Girl," after Northcote ; and " Cakes," and 
" Finery," after Artaud. 

Two interesting prints in Gaugain*s earliest 
manner, that is to say, a mixture of aquatint 
and stipple, are " Diana and her Nymphs " 
and " The Shepherdess of the Alps." Two of 
his best-known plates after Bigg had a large 
contemporary sale and were very popular. 
They are the " Shipwrecked Sailor Boy " and 
"The Sailor Boy's Return." "A Birthday 
Present to Old Nurse " and " Health and 
Sickness " still command prices in excess of 
their merits. 

" Summer's Amusement " ; " Winter's Amuse- 
ment"; "How Smooth, Brother, Feel Again"; 
"The Castle in Danger," are four plates that 
have a varied history. Gaugain published them 
first in 1789, from 9 Manor Street, Chelsea. 
The proofs were monochrome without titles ; in 
the second state they have the title added; in 
the third state they are printed in colours and 
the plate has been strengthened with the graver. 
At Gaugain's sale they were purchased in this 
state by Messrs. Harris, who issued them, as far 
as I can ascertain, with the same line of publi- 
cation. Molteno bought them from Messrs. 
Harris, and at Molteno's sale in 18 19, 20 pairs 
prints, 18 proofs, and 17 pairs in colour, sold for 
£1 : 8s. The presumption is that by this time 



their popularity had had the usual effect and the 
impressions were poor and worn. The last issue 
is published by " Molteno, Colnaghi & Co. & 
Wilkinson, London." I have referred to Messrs. 
Colnaghi, who have no information as to what 
became of the plates. They were re-engraved 
in reverse, and I have seen yet another set with 
"Bartoli" as engraver, but no line of publication. 
I believe there are also some modern chromo- 
photogravure reproductions. 


Hogg (James) worked between 1784 and 
1800. Hogg was never more than a respectable 
stipple-engraver, although he had the advantage 
of designs from Angelica Kauffmann, Peters, 
Kirk, and Wheatley. His " Rinaldo and Armida," 
after Kauffmann, and " Erminia," published in 
1784, are chiefly interesting as showing how 
infinitely superior an engraver was Burke. A 
portrait of Maria Cecilia Louisa Cosway as " A 
Milk-maid," after R. Cosway, published by 
J. R. Smith; "The Power of Music," after 
Kauffmann ; " Adelaide," and " Sylvia," after 
Wheatley ; " The Count de Belemire," after 
Rigaud ; a portrait of "John Henderson," and 
an engraving of " Queen Margaret with her 
son the Prince," after Antoine Borel, are all, 
if not more than all, that are worthy of 
mention amongst the works of Hogg. But 
the Rev. W. Peters was a painter so excecd- 



ingly popular, that " Sophia," painted by him 
and engraved by Hogg, is quoted as having 
reached the " record sale of any print brought 
out this year." 

Hogg engraved a considerable number of 
plates for the small Shakespeare series brought 
out by the Boydells, but these vv^ere in line. 

This " Sophia," by the w^ay, is the younger 
sister of " Olivia." I rather fancy the transcript 
is supposed to be from the celebrated picture 
painted in rivalry to the one of " Farmer Flam- 
borough's Family." The description of that 
picture aroused the envy of the Vicar of Wake- 
field's vvrife. The Vicar tells us : " As for our 
neighbour's family, there were seven of them, 
drawn with seven oranges — a thing quite out of 
taste, no variety in life, in composition, in the 
world. We desired to have something in a 
brighter style." 

The limner charged 15s. a head, and the 
" brighter style " included " the Vicar's wife as 
Venus, the two little ones as Cupids, Olivia as 
an Amazon sitting upon a bank of flowers 
dressed in a green Joseph, largely laced with 
gold, and a club in her hand. Sophia was to be a 
Shepherdess.^^ This character of the " Shepherd- 
ess " seemed to be one appropriately chosen for 
Sophia, for, earlier in the same immortal classic, 
when the Vicar was called out with his family 
to help at saving an aftergrowth of hay, the 
assiduity of Mr. Burchell in assisting Sophia, 
and his admiration of her in this guise was noted 



with mingled uneasiness and satisfaction by her 
proud and loving father. 

Hogg was the publisher as well as the 
engraver of " Sophia," which may account for 
the above quotation from his trade circular. 
Contrary to custom, the first issue was in 



Jones, Knight, Marcuard, Nutter, Schiavonetti, J. R. Smith, Thew 


Jones Qohn), 1745- 1797. — Jones was an interest- 
ing man for several reasons. He was a mezzo- 
tint, as well as a stipple, engraver, and he was 
the father of George Jones, R.A., the painter of 
battle-pictures, who was one of the executors of 
the wills of Chantrey and Turner, and filled the 
offices of Librarian and Keeper of the Royal 
Academy, of which he was for a short time 
acting President. Of the two artists, father and 
son, however, it is the works of the father that 
to-day command the larger prices, and have 
achieved the greater reputation. 

John Jones was engraver to the Prince of 
Wales and the Duke of York. He exhibited at 
the Incorporated Society of Artists from 1775 
to 1 79 1. His mezzotints are powerful and 
artistic, but occasionally they suffer from over- 
accentuation ; they are too black for beauty. 
He was very successful as a stipple-engraver, and 
is among the half-dozen workers in this metier 



who have left really valuable proofs in colour. 
Amongst them are " Robinetta " (a portrait of 
the Hon. Anna Tollemache when Miss Lewis) 
and "Muscipula," " CoUina " (Lady Gertrude 
FitzPatrick), " Sylvia " (Lady Anne FitzPatrick), 
Lord Henry and Lady Charlotte Spencer as 
" The Fortune Tellers," and " The Sleeping 
Girl." These are all after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Northcote, in his Life of Sir Joshua, speaks of 
" The Sleeping Girl " as one of Sir Joshua's 
" richest " performances. The picture is at pre- 
sent in the possession of the Marquis of Lans- 
downe. There was an edition of this print 
brought out in 1826. 

Jones's stipple-engravings after Reynolds in- 
clude some very fine men's portraits, notably those 
of " The Duke of York," " The Earl of Moira," 
" The Earl of Mansfield," and " Lord Sheffield." 
His engravings after Romney are equally suc- 
cessful. " Erminia " and "Serena" (Miss Sneyd), 
and a small oval of " The Duke of Gloucester," 
are perhaps the best-known. The Miss Sneyd 
who sat for this portrait was Honora, the step- 
mother of Maria Edgeworth. At her death, 
Edgeworth married her sister Elizabeth, who 
was thus his third consort, and he lived to in- 
dulge in yet a fourth ! A small replica of the 
engraving of " Serena " was the frontispiece to 
one of the many editions of Hayley's much- 
admired, but very indifferent, poem. The Triumphs 
of Temper^ for which it was printed in colour. 
Another very fine specimen of stipple-engraving 



by Jones is " Elizabeth Farren and Thomas 
King " in their characters in Burgoyne's comedy 
of The Heiress — it is after Downman. The head 
of Miss Farren has been vignetted out of this 
picture, and re-engraved in stipple by a modern 
artist. But it is very poor in comparison with the 
original. Another engraving by Jones, which is 
pretty in colour, but suffers from the eccentric 
anatomy of the figures, is " Lord Dungarvan, 
eighth Earl of Cork, the Hon. Courtenay and 
the Hon. Charles Boyle " — three children with 
a swing, from a design by Maria Cosway. Jones 
scraped a mezzotint plate of Fanny Kemble after 
Reynolds, in addition to the one he brilliantly 
executed in stipple after Downman ; and another 
very fine one of Mrs. Jordan as " Hypolita," 
which he also first attempted, apparently less 
successfully, in stipple. The plate of this was 
sold at Dickinson's sale, 1794, with the remark 
" never been published," and I have never met 
a print from it, nor any further record of its fate. 
" Emma," both in beauty and interest, comes 
first among the most highly prized stipple-prints 
by John Jones. The history of " Emma " is so 
well, and so variously, known that it is hardly 
worth while to attempt to throw any illumina- 
tion upon her figure in the space of a short para- 
graph. Her biographists and her apologists have 
been as numerous as her engravers. Whether 
her original name was Hart or Lyon, how many 
illegitimate children she had before Mr. Greville 
took her under his protection, how many she 


had after Sir William Hamilton purchased her 
from his nephew and made her his wife, not- 
withstanding numerous controversies and much 
documentary evidence, remains almost as doubtful 
as the identity of the " Man in the Iron Mask." 

That she was once a servant and afterwards 
an ambassadress, that she stood for "The 
Goddess of Health " in order to elucidate the 
lectures of a notorious charlatan of the day. Dr. 
Graham, and that from this position she became 
the one legacy that Lord Nelson left to the 
gratitude of his country, which incontinently 
declined it, are, however, facts beyond dispute. 
Her beauty, unlike that of the celebrated 
Duchess of Devonshire, or Miss Farren, has 
never been questioned. Even Smith, after many 
years' exposure to the dried-up atmosphere of 
the British Museum, bursts into eloquence when 
he mentions her name. "When I showed her 
my etching of the funeral procession of her 
husband's friend (sic), the immortal Nelson, she 
fainted and fell into my arms. Believe me, 
reader, her mouth was equal to any production 
of Greek sculptor I have yet seen." 

Romney never tired of painting her, and several 
of the most celebrated engravers of the day were 
always reproducing her features in one form or 
another. She engaged the caricaturists also, but 
never to the same extent as other ladies whose rise 
in life had been equally meteoric. The fact is 
that Emma never aroused enmity by forgetting 
the lowliness of her origin. To the day of her 


death she kept not only the old relative who 
had helped her through her first " accident," 
but the nurse who subsequently reared the 

The second state of this plate is the coloured 
one. In July 1898, a fine copy of it realised ^80 
at Sotheby's, but I believe this record has since 
been considerably exceeded. 

The first state has the artist's name and the 
title in open letters scratched in. 

Another popular Jones print is that of 
" Fanny Kemble." She was the sister of Mrs. 
Siddons and John Philip Kemble. Apparently 
her acting was of a mediocre character, and the 
critics of the day were very much excited at the 
thought that her brother and sister should have 
endeavoured to foist her on the town. That she 
was assailed by the critics, however, seems to 
have given the excuse to George Steevens to 
become her vigorous champion. The contro- 
versy as to her merits or demerits was fought 
out in the papers in the most virulent fashion; 
Woodfall on the one hand speaking of her as 
being received with " an uncommon indulgence 
of which she had scarcely any appreciation," 
while Steevens injudiciously dilated upon her 
transcendental merits, and compared her to her 
sister, to the disadvantage of the latter ! But 
Steevens's championship had excellent excuse, he 
had fallen in love with her person; skill in 
miming had little to do with his admiration. 
He wearied his friends in the effort to get notices 



for her, and both Hayley and Johnson were at 
one time or another approached to this end. 
But Hayley coolly said that if she was not con- 
tent with the praises that flowed from Steevens's 
pen, she would ill deserve the panegyric of any 
other encomiast; while Johnson gave the Club 
the benefit of his contempt for George Steevens 
and his opinions, and grunted out his intention 
of doing nothing at all in the matter. Presently 
the rumour got about that Steevens and Fanny 
Kemble were to be married : a family council, 
hurriedly called, protested vigorously against this 
step. Mrs. Siddons spoke of Steevens's violent 
temper, John Kemble gloomily expressed his 
disapproval. There was little doubt that both 
of them had been hurt in that sensitive, excitable 
amour propre that the evil fairies leave as a gift 
in the cradles of successful artists. The weak 
and gentle spirit of the girl was no barrier to the 
imperious wills of those spoilt favourites of the 
public, the overbearing King and Queen of 
Tragedy. She even obeyed their mandate to 
engage herself to their partisan, Horace Twiss, 
that critic, " thin, pale, stooping, quaint in his 
phrases, very dogmatic, a Dr. Johnson without 
his talents," whose " eyes have an ill-natured cast 
of acuteness in them," and who was the last 
figure in the world to distract the fancy of a 
girl from burly George Steevens. She wept all 
through her wedding-day ; a spectator tells us 
she looked as if she were equipped for the 
part of "The Mourning Bride," and playing it 



better than she ever played anything in her life 

Mr. and Mrs. Twiss left London and settled 
in Bath, where, the gentleman's literary labours 
not proving sufficient for their maintenance, she 
opened a fashionable Girls' School at No. 24 
Camden Place. Her advertisement runs that : 
" Mrs. Twiss receives young ladies from the 
age of fourteen to twenty. Board one hundred 
guineas a year, entrance five guineas. The 
young ladies will be introduced into the best 
company, and the utmost attention will be paid 
to their morals, conduct, and manners." 

Before she had removed to Bath, however, 
her portrait had been painted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds in 1783. This picture was sold at 
Christie's, at the sale of the Hon. G. A. F. 
Cavendish-Bentinck, for 2640 guineas. 

There are several states of this plate. First 
state, the etching ; second state, proof before 
letters; third state, artist's name, title, a verse 
from Milton, and line of publication in stippled 
letters. In addition to the above there are three 
progress proofs in the British Museum collection. 
The third state is the earliest I have seen in 


Knight (Charles), 1 742-1 827. — Knight was a 
pupil of Bartolozzi, and was first employed on 
indifferent works, such as Harding's Shakespeare 



Illustrated and the Memoirs of Grammont^ but he 
subsequently became one of the most important 
and valuable of the stipple-engravers, and, as was 
usual with the best pupils of Bartolozzi, was 
permitted to put everything but the signature to 
several of the plates on which the fame of the 
master rested. The much-admired and much- 
debated full-length of " Miss Farren " published 
by Jeffreys, and signed by Bartolozzi, has been, 
by other connoisseurs, credited to Knight ; and 
I have myself seen a trial proof of it, in which 
the face was completely finished, and the adjuncts 
etched in, whilst the imprint at the bottom was 
" Charles Knight, Sculp." There are two such 
" proofs " in the British Museum. A small 
replica of this print, to the waist only, was 
engraved by Knight for " La Belle Assemblee." 

Knight engraved after Bunbury, Angelica 
Kauffmann, Wheatley, Stothard, Hopper, J. R. 
Smith, Sir Joshua Reynolds, etc. He was one 
of the governors of the abortive Society of 
Engravers, founded in 1803. 

Another celebrated print, " The Gardens of 
Carlton House with Neapolitan Ballad Singers," 
usually ascribed to Dickinson, but sold as " by 
Bartolozzi" at Christie's and other sales in 1794 
and the early part of this century, is attri- 
buted by Dodd to Charles Knight, to whose 
hands I am personally inclined to credit it, judg- 
ing from various significant details of the work. 
Knight lived in 1781 at Berwick Street, Soho, 
and in 1792 in Brompton. 



In addition to these, Charles Knight was 
responsible for some really charming work, in- 
disputably his own ; and he thoroughly under- 
stood the requirements of the colour-printer. 
It is a little difficult to select a few out of the 
many excellent plates that he engraved. " British 
Plenty " and " Scarcity in India,*' after Singleton, 
realise high prices to-day, but they are not among 
my favourites. These are " Lady Louisa Man- 
ners," after Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady Hamilton as 
a " Bacchante," after Romney, and the children's 
set after Stothard, entitled respectively "The 
Fifth of November," "Feeding Chickens," "The 
Dunce Disgraced," " The Scholar Rewarded," 
" Coming from School," and " Buffet the Bear." 

Unhappily they were greatly appreciated by 
the public, the plates were printed and reprinted 
until they were quite worn out, they were then 
re-engraved by an inferior engraver, and they 
have been extensively reproduced recently both 
by photogravure and lithography. 

" Tom and his Pigeons " and " The Favourite 
Rabbit," after Russell, are much less admirable. 
But two illustrations of " Roderick Random," 
after Anne Trewingard, were exceptionally well 
colour-printed; they represent the scenes where 
Narcissa finds the miniature, and where Roderick 
discovers himself to her. " Pyramus," after 
Hoppner, is also a nice piece of engraving, and 
stands well the comparison with the pair to it, 
" Thisbe," by that admirable artist. Nutter. 

A pair of small prints, " Cupid Disarmed " 



and " Cupid's Revenge," after Benwell, are also 
charming in their early states ; both were popular, 
and suffered accordingly. Poor copies of the 
same pair exist, signed " Bartolini " ; and 
Giuseppe dall' Aqua also executed two plates 
from the same design under the titles " Love 
Triumphant" and "Love Repentant." 

" Cornelia " (Mrs. Elizabeth Ruspina and 
child), a miniature after Sam Shelley, is another 
very desirable little print ; so is " Idleness," after 
Morland, although the plate was only printed in 
colour in a very worn condition. One of the 
Hoppner pictures that Knight engraved was 
" Nature " (a young woman leaning out of a 
window). "Comic Readings" and "Tragic 
Readings," after Boyne, " Rosina," " Flora," 
and " Runaway Love," after Stothard, deserve 

Knight engraved "Damon and Musidora" 
and " Palemon and Lavinia," after Angelica 
Kauffmann. But I should not consider him as 
among the best of the translators of this painter's 
pretty designs. " The Valentine " and " The 
Wedding Ring," after Ansell, are deservedly 
popular. " The Duchess of York," after Beechey, 
is one of his most solid works. " The Land- 
lord's Family " and " The Tenant's Family," 
after Stothard, are two other familiar prints. 
"Blind Man's Buff" and "See-Saw," after 
Hamilton, are very pretty children-subjects, of 
which the original drawings are in the British 



Knight was perhaps at his happiest in engrav- 
ing Stothard*s works, and very many book-illus- 
trations, in addition to those already mentioned, 
prove how well he understood his master's moods. 
" Sweet Poll of Plymouth " is a charming print, 
the subject taken from an old eighteenth-century 
ballad. As the ballad is inaccessible, and has a 
pretty lilt, I reproduce it for the benefit of my 
readers : — 

Sweet Poll of Plymouth was my dear ; 
When forced from her to go, 
A-down her cheeks rain'd many a tear. 
My heart was fraught with woe ; 
Our anchor weigh'd, for sea we stood. 
The land we left behind : 
My tears then swell'd the briny flood. 
My sighs increas'd the wind. 

We plough'd the deep ; and now between 

Us lay the ocean wide ; 

For nve long years I had not seen. 

My sweet, my boney {sic) bride. 

That time I sail'd the wide world around. 

All for my true love's sake ; 

But press'd as we were homeward bound, 

I thought my heart would break. 

The press-gang bold I ask'd in vain. 

To let me go on shore. 

I long'd to see my Poll again ; 

But saw my Poll no more. 

" And have they torn my love away ? 

And is he gone ? " she cry'd. 

My Polly, sweetest flow'r of May : 

She languish'd, — droop'd, — and dy'd. 

The verse generally to be found on the print 
differs slightly from the original. The first 
state of this print is to be met with, in colours. 



"The Match Boy" and "The Primrose Girl " 
were first issued in red monochrome, with title 
and artist's name. The second state is in colours, 
and has the following verses : — 

Cupid's dull matches, made by chance. 
Are damped by tears and sighs ; 
Mine kindle at each anxious glance. 
Prepared with open eyes. 

To welcome in the blooming spring. 
Behold the earliest flower I bring. 
Emblem of youth and innocence. 
With this Life's gayest scenes commence. 

The matches the boy has in his hand are the 
sulphur - tipped splints of wood known as 
"spunks," and sold with tinder-boxes, flint, and 
steel. They were also called " dipping matches." 
These two prints were both issued on the same 
date, 7th July 1785, from designs by J. R. Smith. 
They are rare in colours, and fetch high prices 
even in monochrome. 


Marcuard (Robert Samuel), 1751-1792, was 
a pupil of Bartolozzi and worked entirely in 
stipple, producing between 1778 and 1790 very 
many excellent plates after Cipriani, Angelica 
Kauffmann, Hamilton, Peters, and Stothard. He 
had a peculiar practice of combining the etching- 
needle with the stippling-tool, of which Dodd 
makes special note, and his work seems to have 
been greatly esteemed at the time of its produc- 

209 p 


tion, for, at a sale by auction in 1785, two plates 
by him, " Children with Mouse Trap " and 
" Children with Bird," after Hamilton, fetched, 
with a few impressions, the then extraordinary 
sum of ^ 1 7. 

Whether his peculiar way of combining the 
use of the etching-needle with the stippling-tool 
conduced to the wear of the plate, or from some 
other cause, comparatively few prints by Mar- 
cuard are to be met with. He was invariably 
successful with men's portraits. " Ralph Mil- 
bank," after Sir Joshua Reynolds, " Viscount 
Keppel," and " Cagliostro " are amongst those 
that survived their contemporary popularity. 
Other prints in colour which have merit are 
" Friendship " and " Innocence," two oval minia- 
tures of young girls, one with a bird and one 
with a lamb, after Angelica Kauffmann ; yet 
another, " Henry and Emma," after Stothard ; 
" Lubin and Rosalie," after Beechey ; " Edwin 
and Angelina," after Flaxman ; " The Studious 
Fair," from his own design ; " Orgar and Elfrida," 
after James Jefferys ; and the companion print 
" Elfrida's Vow," after Stothard ; " An Italian 
Fruit Girl," after Peters ; " Beatrice," after 
Harding ; " Adelaide and Fonrose " and " Fon- 
rose and Adelaide," after Hamilton ; " Hebe," 
" Summer Amusements " and " The Bathers 
Surprised," " The Mother's Darling " and " The 
Mother's Care," after Bartolozzi. " Charlotte at 
the Tomb of Werther," after Saunders, is one of 
hundred illustrations to this gloomy idyll. 



The picture of Bartolozzi from which Mar- 
cuard engraved his best-known print was painted 
in 1 77 1, and is, I believe, now in the possession 
of the Earl of Morley. It was exhibited in the 
Winter Exhibition of Old Masters at the New 
Gallery in 1901. The print exists in various 
states, and these have even more interest than is 
usually to be found in the consideration of this 
point in stipple-engravings. 

The first state is the etching. A graver is in 
the right hand. 

The second state is before all letters. The 
graver has been taken out and there is nothing 
in the hand. 

In the third state a porte-crayon has been sub- 
stituted for the graver. The artist's name is in 
stipple, the title and line of publication is in 
scratched letters. A few impressions were taken 
off in colour in each state. 

The fourth state is printed in colour, and after 
the title appears " Ex Academia regalia Artium 

There are later states than any of these, but 
these are all that are worthy of considera- 
tion. The publication line in all instances is 
"J. Birchall, 473 Strand." 


Nutter (William), 1 759-1 802. — Nutter was 
originally apprenticed to Joseph Strutt, but later 
on he had the distinction of being a pupil of that 


brilliant bon viveur J. R. Smith. His works 
were few, and his death was premature. Perhaps 
he learned something more than engraving from 
his genial master, and fast living in the latter half 
of the eighteenth century needed a strong consti- 
tution. Anyway, he died at the age of forty-four, 
and was buried in the graveyard of Whitfield's 
Tabernacle in Tottenham Court Road. 

Some of his most admirable work, of quite 
exceptional excellence, is shown in miniatures 
after Sam Shelley. It is hardly necessary to 
specify these, for they are nearly all good, and 
in colour they are beautiful. Nutter seems 
to have also tried his hand at painting, for in 
the Royal Academy Catalogues of 1782- 1783 
he appears as the author of some allegorical 
designs. Apart from the above - mentioned 
miniatures, a quite considerable number of 
Nutter's works are held to-day in high esteem. 
The "Lecture on Gadding " and "The Moralist," 
after designs by J. R. Smith, although the plates 
with thirty impressions and eight in colour only 
realised ^i : iis. in 1791, would be considered 
cheap to-day at fifty times that sum. 

A complete contrast to Nutter's miniatures 
after Shelley is to be found in his well-known 
portrait of " Captain Coram," after the celebrated 
picture by Hogarth, which adorned the Found- 
ling Hospital. " The Farmer's Visit to his 
Daughter in Town," engraved by Bond, is the 
pair to " The Visit Returned in the Country," 
engraved by Nutter. Dickinson published them 



both in 1789 ; the coloured impressions being 
the first state after the proof. 

Apart from the wholly admirable engravings 
after Sam Shelley, of which, perhaps, I might 
distinguish " Mrs. Bryam and her Children," a 
small square, and " The Hours," engraved for the 
Cabinet of Genius ; the following are to be found 
among Nutter's most successful prints in colour : 

"The Seasons," after Hamilton (White and 
Ogborne assisted in the completion of the 
set); "Bacchante" (Mrs. Hartley and child), 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds (there is a mezzotint 
of this by Giuseppe Marchi) ; "The Ale-House 
Door " and " The Farm-yard," after Singleton ; 
" Saturday Night " and " Sunday Morning," after 
Bigg; "Martha Gunn" (Bathing Woman) ; "The 
Peasant's Little Maid," after Russell ; "Just 
Breech'd " and " The First Bite," after Stothard ; 
and " Strangers at Home," after Morland. 

An oval print after Westall, entitled " Cupid 
Sleeping," is interesting for the dedication to 
" The Duchess of Devonshire," of whom it 
is supposed to be a portrait. Some stanzas by 
the unfortunate Mrs. Robinson which decorate 
the inscription almost exonerate Florizel's be- 
haviour to her ! Two other charming prints 
after Westall, by Nutter, are "The Sensitive 
Plant " and " The Rosebud." Two pretty little 
subjects after Hamilton are " Breaking up " and 
" The Masquerade." " Cecilia overheard by 
Young Delville," after Stothard, is a faithful 
reproduction of the painter's faults. 



The picture from which his "Lady Beauchamp, 
Marchioness of Hertford," is taken is of pathetic 
interest, as having been the one on which Sir 
Joshua Reynolds was engaged when he had the 
first warning of his failure of sight. In his 
pocket-book of the year 1789, in which Lady 
Beauchamp's name appears as a sitter, against 
" Monday, 1 3th July," is written : " Sitting pre- 
vented by my eyes beginning to be obscured J'^ 

Isabella Anne Ingram Shepherd was the 
daughter and co-heir of Charles Ingram, ninth 
and last Viscount Irvine. She married in 1776 
Francis Viscount Beauchamp, afterwards second 
Marquis of Hertford, who died in 1822. 
Wraxall tells us that Lord Beauchamp occupied 
a position of eminence in the ranks of the 
Opposition, and that whenever he addressed the 
House he spoke, if not with eloquence, at least 
with knowledge of his subject. This writer 
describes his person as being " elegantly formed, 
above the ordinary height," and his manners as 
" noble and ingratiating." Isabella Shepherd 
was his second wife, his first having been the 
daughter of Lord Windsor. 

Lady Beauchamp was one of the beauties of 
the day, and as late as 1782, when she had passed 
her first youth, she was still described as being 
"possessed of extraordinary charms." In 18 18, 
even when nearly sixty years of age, it appears 
that she was capable of inspiring passion. It 
was at this age, anyway, that she inspired the 
Regent with some feeling that eventually led to 



his separating himself entirely from Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert. Whether her influence depended more 
on her intellectual endowments than on her 
corporeal qualities is a doubt that Wraxall 
raises, but contemporary opinion, as gathered 
from other sources, does not leave the matter 
in dispute. 

There are at least three known states of this 
print. The first state has the artists' names, the 
Beauchamp arms, and the title. In this state 
the face and neck are sometimes printed in 
colours ; in the second state the title and dedica- 
tion is in open letters ; the third state is wholly 
printed in colours. There is a fine impression 
of each state in the collection of His Majesty at 


ScHiAvoNETTi (Luigi), 1765-1840. — Luigi 
and his twin brother Niccolo Schiavonetti were 
born in Italy in 1765. They came to London 
in 1780, and Niccolo died at Brompton in 18 10. 
Benjamin West attended his funeral, and Dodd 
describes him as " of superlative talent as a de- 
lineator of the human figure," and speaks again 
of " the exquisite tenderness and facility of his 
touch." His brother is, however, the subject 
under consideration. 

It was not as a stipple- engraver that Luigi 
Schiavonetti first rose in the public esteem, but 
as an etcher, and secondly as a line-engraver ; in 



which manner he illustrated Blair's Grave, after 
designs by Blake, with a portrait of Robert Blair 
as a frontispiece. He also engraved two large, 
and four small plates for Boydell's edition of 
Shakespeare. Among them was " Robin Good- 
fellow," after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

" A Nest of Cupids," after Aspinall, is a well- 
known stipple- engraving, very charming in its 
early states, but very disappointing in its modern 
re-issues, of which there are many constantly 
to be met with. The plate is still in existence, 
and still being printed, in a re-worked, re-bitten, 
much-deteriorated condition. 

Amongst the earlier portraits by Schiavonetti 
are to be found " Caroline, Princess of Wales," 
" Mrs. Damer " (the celebrated sculptress), 
" Lady Bayham," " Signor Marchesi," the much- 
portrayed " Maria Cecilia Louisa Cosway," 
" The Turkish Ambassador," and a curiously en- 
graved and colour-printed drawing after Edridge 
of " Lady Cawdor." 

" Michal, y Izabella z Lasockich Oginscy " 
is one of my own favourite examples of Schia- 
vonetti's work. Michal was the nephew, and 
Izabella was the niece, of Count Michal Oginscy, 
Pretender to the Crown of Poland, who played 
so great a part in the revolution of that country, 
and was virtually king of it for four-and-twenty 
hours. Walpole mentions him more than once. 
This print is often to be met with under another 
name. Its first state is before all letters ; its 
second, printed in colours, with the artists' names, 



and the title of the print ; in the third the plate 
has been re-worked, re-lettered, and altered by 
M. Sloane. It is then signed " Engraved by 
Maid. Sloane," and the title has been changed 
to " Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and 
Princess of Wales." The alterations to the 
figures are very slight, but apparently the en- 
graving did duty w^ith the public as excellent 
counterfeits of the newly -married George and 
his unattractive wife ; for it is in this translation 
that the print had its largest sale, and a re-issue 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century ! 

The first and second states are dated 1793, 
and the third 1797, when it was published by 

It is perhaps not widely known that the two 
children in the print of " The Mask " are the 
Spencer children, the Ladies Charlotte and Anne, 
daughters of George, third Duke of Marlborough. 
They form part of the large picture of the " Duke 
of Marlborough and his Family," painted by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds in 1777, and still in the posses- 
sion of the family. 

The story is told, a propos of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's happy art of catching a momentary 
expression, which served him so well in his 
portraits of children, that when Lady Anne, then 
a child of four, was brought into the room to sit, 
she drew back and, without looking round, clung 
to the dress of her nurse, crying, " I won't be 
painted," and thus Sir Joshua sketched the 
attitude and kept it, and, to account for the 



alarm of the child, introduced the elder sister 
in front of her, holding the mask before her 
face. This is the story as told, but the pose, 
according to the artist, was borrowed from an 
antique gem. 

When the children grew up, by the way, it 
was the Lady Charlotte and not the Lady Anne 
who proved wayward and difficult. She eloped 
with the Librarian at Blenheim Palace, Mr. 
Edward Nares ; whilst her sister, the shy little 
girl who would not be painted, married Cropley 
Ashley, sixth Earl of Shaftesbury. 

The first state of this print has merely the 
artists' names with the line of publication. The 
second has " F. Bartolozzi delineavit " added, 
and the publication line altered. In the third 
state " F. Bartolozzi " is erased and the title 
"The Mask, From the original picture in the 
possession of His Grace the Duke of Marl- 
borough," is added, together with the name of 
Schiavonetti as publisher. Bartolozzi himself 
made the design in water-colours for the printer, 
which is still in existence. 

"The Ghost" was engraved as a companion 
to "The Mask," from a design by Westall. 
Simpson, St. Paul's Churchyard, published it, 
March 1791, in black : it had worn a little 
before it was colour-printed. It is very inferior 
in every way to its pendant. The first title was 
"The Ghost,— L' Apparition." The French 
translation was subsequently erased. 




Smith (J. R.), 1752-18 12. — J. R. Smith was 
the son of the artist known as Smith of Derby. 
He began life as apprentice to a linen-draper, 
came to London in that capacity, and devoted 
his first leisure to miniature-painting. His next 
artistic venture was in mezzotint engraving, his 
first plate being a portrait of " Pascal Paoli," 
after Bembridge, dated 1769. Very soon after 
this he engraved a " Public Ledger open to all 
Parties," the great sale of which induced him to 
continue to pursue the art of mezzotinting. 

J. R. Smith had a varied life, and it is extra- 
ordinary that he never found a biographer until 
I paid him that tardy and inadequate tribute in 
1902. There is no history even of his stipple- 
engravings ; only the works themselves, either 
from his own design or those of his friend 
Morland, are here to testify to his super-excel- 
lent skill in this manner, which he pursued 
contemporaneously with his mezzotinting. 

Among the best of J. R. Smith's stipple- 
prints, and, perhaps, the best of J. R. Smith's 
stipple-prints means the most attractive colour- 
printed engravings that exist, are " Rustic Em- 
ployment " and " Rural Amusement." The first 
state of this pair are without titles, and they are 
to be found in Dodd's Catalogues as " A woman 
feeding fowls " and " A woman tending flowers " : 
a late state has alterations in the plate itselt ; 



the costumes are modernised, and high Welsh- 
looking caps are added. " Delia in Town " and 
" Delia in the Country," after Morland, and 
"Thoughts on a Single Life," exist in modern 

" Thoughts on Matrimony " was engraved by 
William Ward, from J. R. Smith's design. The 
set of " Loetitia " proved so popular that the 
worn plates were altered in 1811, when a large 
re-issue was made. From an artistic standpoint, 
however, the alterations were disastrous ; the 
costumes were brought up to date, as in " Rustic 
Employment," and the faces suffered even more. 
Seven shillings and sixpence was the price per 
print at which the issue was made. Ackermann 
was the publisher. 

Other charming prints by J. R. Smith are 
"A Loisir," "The Shepherdess," and "The 
Wood Nymph " ; the set entitled " A Maid," 
"A Wife," "A Widow," "What you will"; 
" Solitude " and " An Evening Walk," " Black, 
Brown, and Fair," " Contemplating the Picture," 
" Belissa," " The Merry Story," " The Snake in 
the Grass," after Reynolds ; " Lavinia," after Sam 
Shelley ; and " Flirtilla " (the pair to " Nar- 
cissa "), after his own design. " Narcissa " in its 
second state was called " The Mirror," but there 
is another delightful stipple-print by J. R. Smith, 
published in 1782, which I have seen similarly 
named ; its correct title, however, is " The 
Mirror, Serena and Flirtilla." It was brought 
out in the early days of colour-printing, but it 



lacks nothing of the perfection that was reached 
in the next few years. It contains two female 
figures, the face of one of them reflected a second 
time in a mirror that hangs on the wall. It is a 
very rare print. " Hobbinella and Luberkin," 
after Northcote, was published in colours in 
proof-state by J. R. Smith in 1783 ; it has no en- 
graver's name on it, and I only presume it to be his 
own work. In addition to the stipple-engravings 
that J. R. Smith executed, he furnished for other 
engravers, notably William Ward, many designs 
of singular charm and spirit. 

" The Chanters " is a print singular amongst 
the stipple-works of J. R. Smith in exhibiting 
the engraver's capacity for translating faithfully, 
whilst at the same time idealising, the work of 
any artist that he had before him. This he 
proved again and again in his mezzotint work. 
Peters was a difficult master from which to 
engrave, Bartolozzi himself failed more than 
once to give even an adequate rendering of his 
original — see " The Spirit of a Child " for a case 
in point. But " The Chanters," whilst com- 
pletely honest, shows at once the manner of the 
artist, and the quality of the engraver. The first 
state, before the title, was printed in colours, so I 
think it may be fairly considered that rara avis^ a 
proof in colours. 

" Narcissa," another famous stipple -print by 
J. R. Smith, is of course the heroine of Roderick 
Random^ of whom the hero gives the following 
description : — 


So much sweetness appeared in the countenance and carriage 
of this amiable apparition that my heart was captivated at first 
sight, and while dinner lasted I gazed upon her without inter- 
mission. Her age seemed to be seventeen, her stature tall, her 
shape unexceptionable. Her dark hair fell down upon her ivory 
neck in ringlets, her arched eyebrow of the same colour, her 
eyes piercing yet tender, her lips of the consistence and hue of 
cherries, her complexion clear, delicate, and healthy, her aspect 
noble, ingenuous, and humane, and her whole person so ravish- 
ingly delightful that it was impossible for any creature endowed 
with sensibility to see without admiring, and admire without 
loving to excess. 

The first state of this print is without title ; 
in the second the title " Narcissa " is added ; in 
the third it is called "The Mirror." I have 
seen both the last states printed in colours, and 
several copies with some brush-work, which is 
easily accounted for by the fact that, at the Boy- 
dell sale in 1818, a large number of impressions 
were catalogued " Printed in colours " (" ready 
for finishing "). 


Thew (Robert), 1 758-1 802. — Thew's prin- 
cipal works in stipple were the large plates he 
engraved for the Boydell Shakespeare set. They 
are among the best and most numerous of that 
unequal issue. Among his smaller plates are 
several charming miniatures, notably a portrait 
of Miss Turner under the title " Reflections on 
Werther," after Crosse. He also engraved por- 
traits of Mr. and Mrs. Cosway as " Abelard and 
Heloisa," after Cosway ; " Conjugal Affection," 



after Smirke ; and " Rustic Courtship " and 
" Polite Courtship," after Dayes. 

" Infancy " is a portrait of Francis George Hare. 
Francis George Hare was the eldest son of 
Francis Hare-Naylor of Hurstmonceaux. He 
died in 1847. '^^^ picture was painted in 
1788, was formerly in the possession of Sir John 
D. Paul, Bart., and is now in that of H. L. 
BischofFsheim, who purchased it at Christie's in 
1872. The print in its first state has the artists' 
names, title in open letters ; and the publication- 
line gives it as having been brought out on 
"February 22, 1790, by R. Thew." In the 
second state the title is erased, and the line of 
publication altered to " Published March 25, 
1790, by J. & J. Boydell, Cheapside, and at the 
Shakespeare Gallery, Pair Mall, London." In 
the third state the title was changed to " In- 
fancy," and it was issued in colours. 



Tomkins, Chas. Turner, W. Ward, Thos. Watson, White, Wilkin 


Tomkins (Peltro William), 1759-1840, was actu- 
ally Bartolozzi's best pupil, although this super- 
lative title was indiscriminately bestowed by 
their various admirers on many of the great 
engraver's apprentices. He had most of the 
qualities of the master, the same delicacy, and 
the same sweetness ; and, were it not for an 
occasional weakness, and the signature, it would 
be difficult to decide whether many of his works 
were to be definitely assigned to the one or to 
the other. He was the son of a landscape- 
painter, who painted English scenery, after 
Claude — a long way after, however. 

Although I have spoken of Tomkins as an 
illustrious pupil of Bartolozzi, he was also a 
clever and original artist, and designed many 
fancy subjects. He combined a considerable 
amount of etching with his stippling, probably 
in order to save time. He was drawing-master 
to the Princesses, and this fact is his best apology 



for degrading his really brilliant talents as an 
engraver to the level of copying the designs 
made by the Princess Elizabeth and her friends, 
notably, illustrations to The Birth and Triumph of 

Tomkins had a shop in Bond Street, where 
he carried on business as a printseller, and from 
there he issued Thomson's Seasons, a magnifi- 
cently illustrated volume, of which he shared 
the honours with Bartolozzi. The plates sur- 
vive, and there are modern unacknowledged 
editions of the book in the market, as well as 
separate prints from the plates, both in mono- 
chrome and in colours. Two other fine works 
projected and brought out by Tomkins were The 
British Gallery of Pictures, the text by Tresham 
and Ottley, and The Gallery of the Marquis of 
Stafford. These two efforts, however, involved 
him in heavy financial loss, and he petitioned 
Parliament to allow him to dispose by lottery 
of the water-colour drawings from which these 
engravings had been executed, together with the 
unsold impressions of the plates. A short Act 
was passed enabling him to do so. Amongst 
these impressions were many exquisitely printed 
in colours. He died in Osnaburgh Street, leav- 
ing a large family. His daughter Emma married 
the well-known engraver Samuel Smith. 

It is difficult to make a selection from the 
colour-prints of Tomkins, difficult, not because 
fine prints by him are rare, but because the 
list of his desirable works, like those of Barto- 

225 Q 


lozzi, would be too extensive. The simple 
enumeration of his book-illustrations, for instance, 
would require a volume to itself ! However, the 
following may be found a fairly representative 
list, as far as quality, if not quantity, is con- 
cerned. A collector of taste will put stipple- 
prints by Tomkins on the same list as those by 
Bartolozzi, J. R. Smith, Burke, and Caroline 
Watson, and will endeavour to secure as many 
as opportunity affords. 

" Hobbinol and Ganderetta," after Gains- 
borough. (This print has sometimes been 
attributed to Bartolozzi, and at Macklin's sale 
in 1800 it was sold as having been engraved by 
him ; genuine impressions, however, are always 
found inscribed " pupil of Bartolozzi." It is 
the second plate from Macklin's British Poets.) 
"The English Fireside" and "The French Fire- 
side," " The English Dressing-Room " and " The 
French Dressing-Room," "The Poor Soldier" 
and " Arthur and Emmeline," after Ansell ; 
" Affection and Innocence," after Bartolozzi ; 
" He Sleeps," " Love Enamoured," after Hopp- 
ner ; four, after designs by A Lady (the Princess 
Elizabeth), entitled "The Hop Girl," "The 
Milk Girl," " The Wood Girl," " The Flower 
Girl." A second, larger, and very inferior set 
from the same designs, was subsequently issued 
by Levilly. " Cottage Girl Shelling Peas," 
" Cottage Girl Gathering Nuts," after Bigg ; 
" Maria " and " Children Feeding Chickens," 
after Russell ; " Children Feeding Goats," after 



Morland ; " Blind Man's BufF," " The Liberal 
Fair," " Peleus and Thetis," " Miranda and 
Ferdinand," " Flora," and " Sylvia overseen by- 
Daphne," after Angelica Kauffmann ; " Marian," 
" The Girl of Modena," and " The Girl of the 
Forest of Snowdon," after Bunbury ; " Rosalind 
and Celia," after Lawrenson ; " The Cottager " 
and " The Villager," an oval pair after an un- 
known and probably amateur designer ; " Birth 
of the Thames," after Cosw^ay ; " Lavinia and 
her Mother," after Ramberg ; " Lucy Boyd," 
after Downman ; "Amyntor and Theodora," and 
a number of others, after Stothard ; " Louisa," 
after Nixon (a portrait of the Duchess of Rut- 
land) ; " Louisa, the celebrated Maid of the 
Haystack," after Palmer ; " Marion and Colin 
Clout," and " Affection " and " Duty," after 
Julia Conyers. There is a French version of 
the last two, which is very inferior, but it is 
unsigned, and frequently sold as the Tomkins 

" The Wanton Trick " and " Innocent Play," 
as well as '* Refreshment," are from his own 
designs, and very charming. They are children- 
subjects, in which he was peculiarly successful. 
The above will give some idea of the scope, 
value, and beauty of the stipple -engravings 
printed in colour of P. W. Tomkins, but the list 
could have been double as long without exhaust- 
ing his work or its diversity. 

Two little books, one entitled My Mother, 
and the other, The Birthday Gift, or the Joy of a 



New Dolly have a set of plates by him from 
designs by Lady Templetown, which are very 
delicate and pretty. About a dozen presentation 
copies of each of these books vv^ere printed in 
colours, but they are rarely met with. If the 
list of Tomkins' work had been made with the 
intention of showing his versatility only, I should, 
perhaps, have included the portrait of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Cumberland, from a design made four days 
after her death by her daughter, the Right Hon. 
Lady Edward Bentinck. 

The early proofs of the plate of "Major Edward 
Topham" are really magnificent examples of pure 
colour-printing. Edward Topham, journalist, 
playwright, soldier, and politician, distinguished 
himself in every field that he cultivated. He 
was educated at Eton under Dr. Foster, and 
remained there eleven years, acquiring a local 
reputation for English poetry, and for having 
been one of the leaders of the revolution against 
Foster's rule. From Eton he went to Cam- 
bridge, but left without taking his degree. 
Mention of him occurs in Wordsworth's Social 
Life at the University ^ as having drawn a wonder- 
ful caricature of the under -porter at Trinity ! 
He travelled on the Continent after his abrupt 
departure from his Alma Mater, and, on his 
return from his travels, he went to Scotland 
with Sir Paul Jodrell, the result of which 
journey he embodied in a publication entitled 
Letters from 'Edinburgh^ containing some Observa- 
tions on the Diversions^ Customs^ Manners^ and 



Laws of the Scotch Nation. It was after this 
venture that he purchased his commission in the 
First Regiment of Life Guards. As adjutant, 
he brought his regiment to a high state of 
efficiency, and, having been thanked by the 
King, was rewarded by finding himself figuring 
in the print-shops as "The Tip-Top Adjutant." 
Politics next allured him, and he published A?j 
Address to Edmu?2d Burke on the Affairs in America. 
From this point Captain (presently Major) Top- 
ham became absorbed in the fashionable life of 
the town, although his ambition was always to 
be taken for a man of letters, and his favourite 
associates were Home Tooke, the elder Colman, 
and Sheridan. He wrote many prologues and 
epilogues, and formed the connection with Mary 
Wells, then acting at Drury Lane, to which I 
have before alluded. 

Mary Wells seems to have been an indifferent 
actress, but her pictures, those by Downman 
especially, show her to have been an uncom- 
monly pretty woman. To Major Topham, 
however, she was not only a pretty woman, but 
a most fascinating actress, and of course he 
imagined that the critics were banded against 
her to prevent her receiving all the praise she 
deserved for her talent. In order to correct this 
injustice, he started, mainly with the object of 
puffing her, the paper called The World. But 
The World had a wonderful success quite apart 
from its avowed object. It was personal jour- 
nalism in excelsis. Gifford, in his Baviad and 



Mceviad^ speaks of it with disgust, as indeed 
does also Hannah Moore in her Memoirs : " In 
it appear accounts of elopements, divorces, and 
suicides tricked out in all the elegance of Mr. 
Topham's phraseology." The two stories, how- 
ever, that most largely affected the circulation 
of T/ie World were " The Life of the late John 
Elwes," which Horace Walpole considered one 
of the most amusing anecdotal books in the 
English language, and the correspondence on 
" The Affairs of the Prize Ring between the 
Pugilists Humphries and Mendoza." >The World 
had more than one action brought against it. 
Once Major Topham was indicted for libel, and 
once he was at law with his co-editor, Este. 

Major Topham tired of the paper, disposed 
of his share, and retired to Wode Cottage 
with three of Mrs. Wells' daughters. Mrs. 
Wells herself ceased to charm him about this 
time, and rumour coupled his name with that of 
a lady in the great world. Nothing seems to 
have come from this attachment, and he lived 
a very domestic life for the next few years, 
devoting the greater part of his time alter- 
nately to farming and to writing his biography, 
which, however, never appeared in print. The 
portrait, which Tomkins used, is a pastel by 
Downman, exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1788 under the title of "The Portrait of a 
Gentleman." It was recently in the possession of 
Rear-Admiral Trollope, 42 Buckingham Palace 



The first state of the print has the artist's 
name, title in open letters, and line of publica- 
tion, with the date January i8th, 1790. The 
second state is the coloured one, the letters are 
filled in, and the line of publication altered to 
February 28th, 1790. 

A picture of " Mrs. Topham and her Chil- 
dren " was also painted by Russell, but has never 
been engraved. Topham appears constantly in 
the works of the caricaturists. In the best-known 
and most celebrated of these " Perdita " (Mrs. 
Robinson) is depicted as having flown to his 
arms after her rupture with the Prince of Wales ; 
but there seems to have been no truth in this 

The portrait of Mrs. Louisa Morgan and her 
child is another of Tomkins' chefs-d'ceuvre. 
The infant in the pretty cap became Mrs. 
Sandford, and her daughter Anna married the 
second Lord Methuen, and was the mother 
of the soldier whom South African affairs 
brought prominently before the public. The 
picture, of which this print is a replica, is 
an oval pastel, and is now in the possession of 
Lord Methuen at Corsham Court, Chippenham. 
But the engraving differs from it in many im- 
portant respects. Alterations and additions have 
been made by the engraver. 

" Morning " and " Evening " are two prints 
now fetching astonishing sums, £^0 to jCioo 
being freely paid for fine specimens in colour. 
This makes it, perhaps, more interesting to learn 



that when the plates, with eighteen impressions 
in colour, were sold at Bovi's sale in 1805, 
sixteen shillings and sixpence was the largest 
amount paid for the pair, and even then the 
auctioneer had to throw in eight prints of 
" Birds and Flowers," in order to dispose of the 
lot at all. There are two more of the set, 
" Noon *' and " Night," but these were engraved 
by Delatre. . 

The first state of all this set was in mono- 
chrome, the proofs being without titles. The 
second state has title, artist's name, and line of 
publication, it is this state and a later one that 
I have seen colour -printed. Many so-called 
" proofs " of this pair are sold in colours, for the 
plates wore exceptionally well, and the second 
state is correspondingly brilliant. But com- 
parison of the so-called coloured proofs with 
those in monochrome places the matter beyond 

The dramatic artists alone, of all who labour 
in Art's fruitful vineyard, leave nothing but 
tradition on which to base their claims to im- 
mortality. And tradition is an applause that 
grows fainter and fainter through the deadening 
curtain of intervening years. No critic, con- 
temporary or otherwise, has managed to crystallise 
the great tragic actress of the eighteenth century 
and the first decade of the nineteenth into one 
sparkling immortal epigram. But Sir Joshua 
Reynolds succeeded where they had failed, fixing 
her for all time on his glowing canvas, and 



Peltro William Tomkins seconded him nobly. 
Mrs. Siddons succeeded Mrs. Abington as 
popular favourite, but she won to the position 
through a storm of hisses, and the abuse of 
gallery and critic. Having w^on her place, she 
held it firmly. She and John Kemble did for 
the stage of that day, something, though not 
everything, of what the late Sir Henry Irving 
has done for it in ours. They gave it dignity. 

Mrs. Siddons was a woman of exemplary 
personal conduct, and a devoted mother. She 
taught that the abandon of the true dramatic artist 
was not incompatible with feminine virtue and 
feminine modesty. She suffered, as women of 
genius must always suffer, from exposure to the 
public gaze and the public comment, but even 
the fiercest glare of publicity found no flaw in 
her femininity. 

The Tomkins print is another of the Rich- 
mond House set, and was first published by 
M. Lawson, i68 Strand, in 1788 ; it was 
republished by R. Cribb, 288 Holborn, in 

The first state has the title, artist's name, and 
line of publication ; and there are a few late 
proofs in colour. The second issue was also in 
colour. A modern stipple-engraved plate after 
this print has recently been brought out, but I 
fear it only serves to accentuate the fact that 
stipple-engraving is a lost art. 




Turner (Chas.), 1 774-1 857, was the son of 
Charles and Jane Turner of Woodstock, Oxon. 
His father, a Collector of Excise, got into diffi- 
culties, and his mother, who previous to her 
marriage had been maid to the Duchess of 
Marlborough, exerted her influence with her 
late mistress to procure the post of Custodian of 
the China, at Blenheim, for her eldest son. 

Young Charles Turner, very soon after his in- 
stallation, attracted the attention of the Duke by a 
drawing that he made of an Oriental plate. This 
was the age of patrons, and Charles Turner was 
almost immediately sent to London, with every- 
thing necessary to procure him admission to the 
Royal Academy School. He had wished to be 
a painter, but discovered sufficiently early that 
he lacked something of originality, patience, or 
imagination, and he rested instead on the lower 
rung of the art- ladder that stood temptingly 
before him. He became an engraver, and 
achieved an immediate success. His fine series 
of mezzotints is well known. He worked for 
the Boydells ; and posterity owes him gratitude 
for his prints after his celebrated namesake, 
J. M. W. Turner. The complete history of 
this connection has yet to be written. He did 
the first twenty plates for the Liber Studiorum^ 
and then quarrelled with the master over money 
matters. Many years later they became recon- 



ciled ; he executed more plates, became Turner's 
best friend, and was ultimately appointed his 
Trustee. He lived at 50 Warren Street, Fitzroy 
Square, whence many of his plates were pub- 
lished. His stipple-prints are few in number ; 
one of them, the portrait of " Ball," a famous 
bull-dog, has an aquatint background. The best- 
known are the " Sir Joshua Reynolds," an excel- 
lent plate heavily etched, and that of " Miss 
Bowles," after Sir Joshua, published in 18 17. 
The latter has almost the value of a mezzotint 
engraving, and the flesh is most delicately stippled. 
There is a small plate of the same picture, 
mezzotinted by him, a comparison of the two 
throwing light on the relative capabilities of the 
two methods. 

Although the above-named are the best 
known, by far the most important stipple-prints 
by Turner are " Villagers Dancing," " Mother's 
Fairings," and "The Savoyard": these are all 
three exceedingly rare in colour. A small but 
very charming piece of stipple -work is the 
frontispiece to an aria composed by the Mar- 
chioness of Blandford, designed by Cosway, and 
exquisitely printed in colours. He also designed 
and stipple-engraved a sketch of Miss O'Neill in 
the first year that she came to London. The 
large mezzotint of her, under the title of 
" Hebe," after Huet Villiers, was executed three 
years earlier. 

"Mademoiselle Parisot " was issued at los. in 
colour. I have been offered >Cioo for my own 



print. But it was given to me by the late Sir Henry 
Irving ; and to me, of course, on that account also, 
quite priceless. Mademoiselle Parisot was a cele- 
brated dancer at the London Opera House at the 
time (1798) when the Bishop of Durham (Shute 
Barrington) made his celebrated Protest against 
the growing licentiousness of the opera- ballet. 
She was one of the three dancers who figured 
in the caricature of Gillray that the pamphlet 
evoked, under the title of " Danse a UEveque.'' 

Mademoiselle Parisot married Mr. Hughes 
of Golden Square in 1807. The pair generally 
hung with this print is " Mademoiselle Hilligs- 
berg," who has been already alluded to as one 
of the mistresses of that multitudinous lover, 
George IV. " Mademoiselle Parisot " appears to 
have been colour-printed in its earliest lettered 
state. I have never seen it without title, but 
neither have I seen a monochrome in this con- 
dition. My own copy is with open letters, and 
most brilliant. It is a rare print. 


Ward (William), 1 762-1 826, was a brother- 
in-law of George Morland in a double way ; for, 
Morland married Annie, Ward's sister, and Ward 
married Maria, Morland's sister. 

William Ward was a pupil of J. R. Smith, 
and became assistant to him when he had finished 
his apprenticeship. Like his master, his best 



work was done in mezzotint, but many charming 
stipple-prints exist by him, and they are keenly 
sought after. In some instances he made his own 
designs, which were very much in the manner 
of Smith. But he also engraved in stipple 
after J. R. Smith, and from designs supplied to 
him by his erratic brother-in-law, George Mor- 
land. His fame rests chiefly, of course, on his 
series of mezzotints after this celebrated relative, 
and rests there deservedly, but these are outside 
the province of the present volume. Ward was 
peculiarly successful in delineating the female 
figure in quaint attitudes and costumes. His 
own compositions, however, sometimes lack 
spontaneity, he was a better translator than 
originator. He was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1814, and he also held for 
some time the appointment of Mezzotint- 
Engraver to the Prince Regent and the Duke of 
York. He lived in 50 Warren Street, Soho, 
and died there suddenly in 1826, leaving two 
sons. The eccentricity latent in the Morland 
family reappeared in these two sons of William 
Ward ; the eldest, Martin Theodore, artist and 
exhibitor, abandoned his career when he was at 
his zenith, and died in 1874 in poverty and 
obscurity, both self-sought. William James, the 
second son, a valuable mezzotint artist, became 
insane, and died in an asylum in 1840. 

Among William Ward's stipple-prints are to 
be found "The First Pledge of Love," after 
Morland ; " Thoughts on Matrimony " (a miser- 



able late copy of which, signed " Bartolonii,** 
exists) — the pair to it, "Thoughts on a Single 
Life," being by J. R. Smith ; " Louisa," " Louisa 
Mildmay," "The Soliloquy," "The Musing 
Charmer," "Alinda," "Hesitation," and "The 

All these, which are from his own designs, 
have been only too popular, and have been repro- 
duced until they have lost the greater part of 
their charm. " Lucy of Leinster," which shares 
the same fate, was not a popular print at the 
time of its production. The plate, with 142 
plain and 5 coloured impressions, was sold at 
Molteno's sale for ^i :2s., as were also "A 
Loisir " and " Louisa," a pair, the first engraved 
by Smith, the other by Ward. Sixteen shillings 
was all that the plates of the two latter with 
6 proofs and 12 prints realised at the same sale. 
"A Loisir" alone to-day easily fetches £s^' ^^ 
far as I know, the portraits Ward engraved in 
stipple of the Royal Princesses, the first of which 
appeared in 1789, have not been reproduced. 
These were after Ramberg, and included " Char- 
lotte Augusta," " Augusta Sophia," " Elizabeth," 
" Sophia," and " Amelia." Of the five, " Augusta" 
is by far the prettiest ; she is depicted sitting on 
a garden seat plucking a bough from a tree. A 
poor impression of this plate was sold in 1896 by 
public sale for jf 16 : los. After Ramberg also, 
are the two popular prints " Temptation " and 
" Reflection " ; the latter, in proof state, is lettered 
as " Private Amusement." 



Other stipple-prints by Ward are "The Min- 
strel," after Opie ; a circle with a quotation from 
Beattie's poem, dated 1784, and a much-engraved 
" Annette and Lubin " from Marmontel's Moral 

" Constancy " and " Variety " are perhaps the 
most interesting of W. Ward's stipple - prints. 
"Variety" is said to be a portrait of Mrs. 
Morland, " Constancy " of Mrs. William Ward. 
The two married couples lived for a short time 
in the same house in High Street, Marylebone, 
but, as the German proverb says, " no roof is 
large enough to cover two families." The two 
ladies found ample cause for dispute in their 
respective husbands' accomplishments. One was 
a sober man of talent, the other a drunken genius, 
and constant reiteration of these facts seems to 
have produced dissensions, leading to a disruption 
of the family partnership, after about three 
months. They then separated, when Mrs. Mor- 
land had all the " variety " that she could possibly 
require in George Morland's transitions between 
profligacy, drunkenness, repentance, and fresh 
outbreaks ; and Maria enjoyed not only her own 
" constancy " but that of her excellent husband. 

The two prints in their second state have 
respectively these execrable verses : — 


Crowded scenes or lonely roads 
My fickle mind by turn approves, 
Come then my votaries, follow me 
The charm of life's variety. 




Firm as the rock on which I lean 
My mind is fixed and cannot rove, 
Though foaming billows roll between 
I'll ne'er forsake the youth I love. 

The original picture of " Constancy " is, or 
was, in the possession of Thomas J. Barratt, Bell 
Moor, Hampstead Heath. But how it has 
become separated from its pair, and what has 
become of " Variety," I have not been able to 

There are two states of these prints : the first 
before all letters ; the second with the artists' 
names, title, verse, and line of publication, 
"London, Publish'd Sepr. 4th, 1788, by W. 
Dickinson, Engraver, 158 New Bond Street." 
The second is printed in colour. The plates, 
with 49 plain and 1 1 coloured impressions, were 
sold at Dickinson's sale in 1794 for eight guineas. 
A fine pair in colours will to-day realise close 
upon j^ioo. These plates were re -engraved 
with the signature " Bartolotti," and a would-be 
purchaser must be careful to avoid purchasing 
the very poor second pair. 


Watson (Thomas), 1743-1781. — He was 
articled to a metal -engraver, and he executed 
some good stipple-prints, but especially excelled 
in mezzotint. He carried on business as a print- 



seller at New Bond Street in 1778, for a short 
time was partner with Dickinson, died and was 
buried in Bristol. 

Watson's stipple-prints are meagre in quantity, 
although they may be said to make up amply 
for this in quality. Among them are a print of 
Mrs. Sheridan as " St. Cecilia," after Reynolds, 
one of " Friar Philip's Geese," and a very poor 
one of " The Duchess of Devonshire." The 
" St. Cecilia " has been mezzotinted in so very 
superior a manner by Dickinson that no collector 
will be anxious to acquire a copy of it by Watson. 
The three following, however, will, I think, 
sufficiently account for the inclusion of Thomas 
Watson among first-class stipple-engravers. 

"Mrs. Wilbraham." — Mrs. Wilbraham was the 
daughter of W. Harvey, of Chigwell, Essex, and 
the wife of George Wilbraham, of Nantwich and 
Delamere House. Her husband was Sheriff for 
the County of Cheshire, and died in 181 3. This 
picture is always sold as the pair to " Mrs. 
Crewe," but I have spent many weary months 
in endeavouring fruitlessly to find any social 
connection between the two ladies. 

"Mrs. Crewe." — Mrs. Crewe was, of course, one 
of the most interesting women of her day. She 
was one of the " blue-stockings," and an intimate 
friend of Mrs. Montague. She also figured in 
the most frivolous society, and was on loving 
terms with the famous Duchess of Devonshire. 
She was a daughter of Fulke Greville, and 
Doctor Burney was her godfather, whilst in her 

241 R 


turn, Mrs. Fulke Greville was godmother to 
Fanny Burney. Mrs. Crewe inherited her 
beauty from her mother and her brilliancy from 
her father. It will be remembered that Fulke 
Greville, son of the fifth Lord Brooke, eloped 
with his wife, and that when he asked forgive- 
ness, his father-in-law drily remarked that Mr. 
Greville had taken a wife out of the window 
whom he might just as well have taken out of 
the door. Mrs., afterwards Lady Crewe, was a 
very prominent politician on the Whig side, and 
Fox, Burke, and Sheridan were frequent visitors 
at Crewe Hall. The School for Scandal was dedi- 
cated to Lady Crewe, and Horace Walpole 
published at the Strawberry Hill press some 
verses written by her for Fox, for whom, like 
her friend Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, 
she actively canvassed at the Westminster elec- 
tion. The most unfortunate circumstance about 
Lady Crewe is that her biographers were not 
content to tell us of her brilliancy and wit, but 
they actually proceeded to give us an instance of 
both. Wraxall, Fanny Burney, Walpole, and 
Huish all repeat the following poor specimen of 
repartee. At a dance at her house after the 
famous election of 1784, the Prince of Wales 
gave the toast " True Blue and Mrs. Crewe," to 
which the bewitching lady brilliantly replied 
"True Blue and all of you." This, and the 
story of a gentleman who, for a small wager, 
expectorated into the hat of one of his fellow- 
guests, are the two gems of eighteenth-century 



humour that most frequently appear among the 
chronicles of the day ! 

"Una" (Miss Elizabeth Beauclerk). — This is 
Topham Beauclerk's daughter. Topham Beau- 
clerk, friend of Johnson, wit, debauchee, member 
of the Literary Club, married Lady Diana 
Spencer, eldest daughter of Charles, Duke of 
Marlborough, who had been divorced from 
Viscount Bolingbroke, and was hardly more 
happy in her second marriage. Lady Diana 
Beauclerk, who was familiarly known as " My 
Lady Bully," was by way of being an artist, and 
Horace Walpole admired her work and had a 
boudoir devoted to specimens of it at Straw- 
berry Hill. But I think it must have been the 
lady rather than the painting that he found 
attractive ; for, although he made very desperate 
mistakes in his criticisms on contemporary art 
and artists, it seems impossible to believe he 
really could have thought the strange composi- 
tionSjWith figures anatomically impossible, in posi- 
tions weird and unaccountable, merited a place 
amongst his masterpieces. At Holland House 
there are drawings by Lady Diana, including a 
portrait sketch of Charles James Fox. " Una," 
the subject of the engraving, married George 
Augustus, Lord Herbert, afterwards the eleventh 
Earl of Pembroke, in 1787, and died in 1793. 

The first state of the print is before all letters; 
the second with the artist's name and " vide 
Spenser s Fairy Queen " ; the third has the title 
"Una" with the well-known verse, and is 



printed in colours. Owing to poor Una's early- 
death, the Earl of Pembroke married a second 
time in 1808. Her successor was the only 
daughter of Count Worronzoff, and was one of 
the two Russian children engraved by Caroline 
Watson in 1788, after Cosway. 


White (Charles), 1 751-1785, was born in 
London and lived the greater number of his days 
at Stafford Row, Pimlico, where he died in 1785. 
He was apprenticed to Robert Franker, a line- 
engraver, but, after serving his apprenticeship, he 
abandoned this method for the easier stipple. 
He was largely employed in executing insignifi- 
cant prints from designs by ladies. Later on he 
was engaged on more important plates, but was 
prematurely cut off by fever before he had lived 
to complete them, in the thirty-fourth year of 
his age. Among these designs by ladies, of 
which Dodd speaks so contemptuously, were a 
large number after Emma Crewe, of which I 
may mention "A Lady and Child," "Instruc- 
tion," " Biography," " Contemplation," " Ballad 
Singers," "Julia," "Annette and Lubin," "The 
Cherry Girl," " Lavinia and her Mother," and 
" A Good Mother Reading a Story." 

A charming "Love," after Peters (a circle), 
and the pair to it, which is entitled "The 
Enraptured Youth," are amongst his best work. 
The first of these is a variation of the celebrated 



picture mezzotinted by J. R. Smith entitled 
" Love in her eyes sits playing." " Mary 
Isabella Somerset, Duchess of Rutland," is 
another successful study after Peters. " Cottage 
Children," after Russell, " Margaret of Anjou," 
and " Palemon and Lavinia " (circles), after 
Stothard, and " The Dove," after Miss Bennett, 
are other engravings by White. The two most 
valued prints that have survived are the 
" Infancy," after Cosway, and " Fidelity," after 
Gardner. He also engraved a portrait of Lady 
Catherine Powlett (an oval), after Cosway. 
Three after Bunbury — "A Camp Scene," 
" Patty," and " Charlotte and Werther " — seem 
to have been prepared only for colour, and to 
have been unworthy of its assistance. 

"Infancy" was painted by Cosway in 1785 
for the Earl of Radnor. The two children 
represented are William, Viscount Folkestone, 
afterwards third Earl of Radnor, and his sister 
Lady Mary Anne Pleydell-Bouverie. It appears 
from the family account - book, 24th October 
1785, that the Earl of Radnor paid Cosway 
^115: I OS. for this picture. The same account- 
book, of nth February 1786, says he paid to 
Mrs. White for 24 proof engravings of the print 
of Cosway's " Children " ^14 : 8s. The original 
picture is still in the possession of the family, and 
hangs at Longford Castle. 

I have no history of" Fidelity." I have seen 
several proofs in monochrome ; but nothing in 
colour earlier than the second state. 




Wilkin (Charles), 1750- 1814. — Charles 
Wilkin was awarded a premium for stipple-work 
by the Society of Arts, and, according to Dodd, 
he had quite an original manner of working. 
He published from Eaton Street, Pimlico. The 
most important plate that he engraved is, per- 
haps, the well - known " Cornelia and her 
Children" (Lady Cockburn and her children), 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds, in 1791, a most 
beautiful piece of work without which no collec- 
tion of stipple-prints is complete. The original 
picture was bequeathed by Lady Hamilton to 
the National Gallery. It was recently discovered, 
however, that the bequest was illegal ; the family 
claimed the picture, with others less important 
that had been left in the same way, and sold it 
to America for a large sum of money. Through 
the liberality of the late Mr. Beit it has now, 
however, been restored to the nation. 

The other important work by Wilkin was a 
book entitled A Select Series of Portraits of Ladies 
of Rank and Fashion. They were published by 
subscription at one guinea the proofs, half a 
guinea the prints. A prospectus was issued in 
1797, and the engravings were promised every 
four months. Hoppner was associated with 
Wilkin in this venture, and the original pro- 
spectus said : " Subscriptions received by John 
Hoppner, Charles Street, St. James's Square, or 



C. Wilkin, 19 Eaton Street, Pimlico." Before 
the second set came out the name of Hoppner 
had disappeared, and Wilkin took the entire 
responsibility of the publication. Coloured im- 
pressions seem to have been an afterthought — 
the only ones I have seen are from the plates, in 
evidently worn states, and on paper dated 1805 
and 1808. 

Among the most beautiful of this series are, 
perhaps, "Lady Charlotte Duncombe"; "The 
Countess of Euston," after Hoppner ; and " Lady 
Catherine Howard," from Wilkin's own design. 
Others are " Lady St. Asaph " and " Lady Char- 
lotte Campbell " (a pretty daughter of one of the 
beautiful Misses Gunning), "Lady Langham," 
"Jane Elizabeth, Viscountess Andover," "Mrs. 
Parkyns " (Lady Rancliffe), after Hoppner; 
" Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick," " Lady Gertrude 
Villiers," and " The Duchess of Rutland," after 
Wilkin. The late Mr. Tuer issued photogravures 
of these in book form, and I believe the edition 
was rapidly sold out. Others of Wilkin's stipple- 
prints are " Epponina," after Benjamin West, and 
the well-known " Children Relieving a Beggar- 
Boy," after Beechey. These were the children 
of Sir Francis Ford. 

A very desirable acquisition is an early proof 
of Wilkin's " Master Hoare." Henry Richard 
Hoare was the only son of Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 
Bart., Fellow of the Royal Society, and historian 
of Wiltshire. He was born in 1785, married in 
1802 to Charlotte, only daughter of Sir Edward 



Deny, Bart., and died without an heir in 1836. 
The baronetcy devolved upon his eldest half- 
brother, founder of the now celebrated banking- 
house in Fleet Street. The picture by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds was painted in 1788, and is familiar to 
the public in Loan Exhibitions. I believe it 
is now at the family seat at Stourhead in 

The first state has artist's name, line of pub- 
lication in etched letters, " Pubd. May, 1789, by 
C. Wilkin, No. 83 Queen Anne Street East"; 
the second state has the title in etched letters, 
"Published June 1789, by C. Wilkin and R. 
Evans, Printsellers, Poultry, and Darling, Great 
Newport Street W.," and in this state it was 



Other Stipple-Engravers. Apologia and Conclusion 

In the preceding pages I have given in alpha- 
betical order a few particulars of the most 
notable engravers of the Bartolozzi school, in 
whose work I have specially interested myself, 
and who are represented well in my own collec- 
tion. The arbitrary omissions, due to causes 
more or less personal, are collated shortly in the 
following notes. 

Agar (John S.), 1776-1858, was a portrait- 
painter as well as an engraver, who exhibited 
at the Royal Academy between 1796 and 1806. 
He was a pupil of Cheesman and Bovi, and was 
at one time President of the Society of Engravers. 
Amongst his best-known stipple-works, all of 
which have been produced at one time or another 
in colour, are : — 

"The Shepherd Boy" (Sir W. Jones), after 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and a large number of 
plates after Cosway, of which " Mrs. Duff" has 
been, perhaps, the most admired. This plate is 
still in existence, and weak modern impressions, 
generally hand - coloured, are often to be met 



with. " Lady Heathcote," " George, fourth Duke 
of Marlborough,'* and his mistress, the latter 
entitled " A Lady in the character of a Milk- 
maid," are others. " A Lady in the character of 
a Gipsy " (Harriet, Lady Cockerell, daughter of 
Lady Rushout) is an attractive colour- print. 
Agar was also among the many engravers of 
" Miss O'Neill." 

Baillie (Capt. Wm.), 1 723-1810. — This 
brilliant Irishman, who called himself an amateur, 
excelled as an etcher. He is best known to 
print-collectors as having re-worked Rembrandt's 
" Hundred Guilder " plate, " Christ Healing the 
Sick," and also for the two handsome folio 
volumes, entitled A Series of 225 Prints and 
Etchings after Rembrandt, Teniers, Gerard Dow, 
Poussin, and others, by Captain William Baillie ; 
published by Boydell in 1792. But Captain 
Baillie was also a charming stipple-engraver, and 
he used this method in combination with the 
etching-needle with excellent effect; his work 
being met with in colour sufficiently often to 
entitle him to a passing notice here. Among his 
best plates in this manner are a portrait of George 
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, after Van Dyck ; 
" A Woman's Head," after G. Dow; " Madonna 
and Child," after Rottenhamer, and a fine portrait 
of Lord Mountstuart, after N. Hone. 

Benedetti (Michele), 1745-18 10. — He was 
born in Rome, but spent the greater part of his 
life in England. His earliest works are in line, 
but he became a pupil of Bartolozzi, and after- 



wards confined himself almost entirely to stipple, 
in which medium, perhaps, his finest work, 
printed in colours in its first state, is the well- 
known portrait of Edmund Burke, after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, on which he proudly records 
the name of his master. 

Benedetti also engraved " The Guardian 
Angel," after Fuseli, for Sir B. Boothby's fustian 
"Sorrows sacred to Penelope," 1796; "The 
Child's Dressing " and " The Child First Going 
Alone," after H. Singleton ; " Music " and " A 
Sybil," a pair, the first after Domenichino, and 
the second after Guido Reni ; and " Adoration," 
also after Guido Reni. He worked on the Bun- 
bury Shakespeare, published by Macklin, 1792-96. 
The majority of his plates lacked delicacy and 
refinement, and, whether through honesty or 
ignorance, he never attempted to improve the 
bad drawing of the designs given to him. 

Bettelini (Pietro), 1763- 1825. — He was 
born in Lugano, and was sent over to England 
to study under Bartolozzi, but master and pupil 
were mutually dissatisfied and soon separated. 
Bettelini returned to Italy, and was fortunate 
enough to be admitted into the studio of the 
truly eminent engraver Raffaello Morghen, 
where he rapidly improved in his art ; and 
ultimately achieved a well -merited individual 
renown. Le Blanc gives a long list of Bette- 
lini's works in line. Among his stipple-prints 
that are to be met with in colour are a miniature 
of Signora Storacci ; the delicate and fascinating 



" Music has charms to soothe the savage breast," 
after Cosway ; and " A Nymph Asleep," after 
Cipriani ; " Innocence and Fidelity " ; and " The 
Duchess of C . . . delivered from the Cavern," 
after Rigaud. 

Blake (William), 1757- 1827. — Idealist, artist, 
poet, he was one of the most interesting figures 
of this wonderful era. But his stipple-prints 
formed so insignificant a part of his contribu- 
tion to contemporary chromography, that I have 
reserved him entirely for a problematic future 

" Calisto " and " Zephyrus and Flora," after 
Stothard ; a delicate stipple - engraving of the 
poet Cowper, after Sir Thomas Lawrence ; 
" Mrs. Q." (wife of Colonel Quentin), after 
Huet Villiers ; " Venus dissuading Adonis from 
Hunting," a line and stipple-print after Cosway ; 
" The Industrious Cottagers " and " The Idle 
Laundress," after Morland ; " Morning Amuse- 
ment " and " Evening Amusement," after Wat- 
teau, will represent not unworthily this side of 
his work. The last-named pair are charming 
prints. The portrait of Elizabeth Henrietta 
Conyngham, Marchioness of Huntly, is some- 
times erroneously sold under the title " Mrs. Q./' 
and sometimes, more correctly, as a pendant to 
it. It is, however, engraved by Maile. The 
art of Blake has already inspired two classic 
works : Gilchrist's Life and Swinburne's Critical 

Bond (William), who worked between 1772 



and 1807, was Governor of the Society of 
Engravers, founded in 1803. He engraved in 
stipple many prints of large size after West and 

His best-known prints in colours are " The 
Woodland Maid " (a portrait of Miss De Visme), 
and " The Marchioness of Thomond," after Sir 
Thomas Lawrence ; " The Laughing Girl," after 
Sir Joshua Reynolds ; " The Farmer's Visit to 
his Daughter in Town " (companion to " The 
Visit Returned in the Country," by Nutter, after 
Morland), and "Mrs. Young" in the character 
of " Cora," after Hobday. A charming print by 
Bond, very delicate and refined in workmanship, 
though rather straggling and disproportionate in 
composition, is the " Madame Tallien," after 
Masquerier. Bond engraved " The Expiation of 
Orestes," after Westall, for Longman's Fine Arts 
of the English School. 

Bovi (M.), born in 1760, was a pupil of 
Bartolozzi, and published many well-known 
stipple-engravings in colour and otherwise. He 
had, according to Minasi, three copper-plate 
presses, and kept two colour-printers, who had 
been trained under Seigneuer, constantly em- 
ployed. He was apparently a very industrious 
engraver, and one of great merit, but his unfortu- 
nate habit of translating the work of inferior 
painters makes it impossible in all cases to give 
him the credit he deserves for his dexterity. 
He seems to have shared Horace Walpole's 
admiration for Lady Diana Beauclerk's monstrous 



drawings, and he constantly reproduced her 
designs. His portraits of " Cosway," after Cos- 
way, dated 1786, and of " Mrs. Bateman," after 
Guttenbrun, have a certain extrinsic interest. 
" New Shoes " and " Nice Supper " are not quite 
the worst of Lady Diana's prints. " Lady Diana 
Sinclair," "Martha Swinburne," "Countess Rad- 
nor," " Mrs. Merry," and " Miss Barker " are all 
after Cosway ; " Mrs. Brooke " is after C. Read ; 
" Grace in all their Steps," after Locke ; " Nymphs 
and Satyrs" and "The Arts and Sciences" are 
both after Cipriani ; the last being a highly 
decorative panel, one of a set of four, which I 
have twice seen printed beautifully in colours on 

Cardon (Antoine), 1772-18 13, was an excel- 
lent stipple-engraver, but he hardly started work- 
ing until the end of the century was well in sight. 
He died before he had reached maturity in his 
art. But the prints of " Louisa Paolina Angelica 
Cosway," " Thaddeus Kosciuszko," " Flora and 
Ceres," " Lady Stanhope," " Mrs. Merry," and 
" Madame Recamier," after Cosway ; a charm- 
ing miniature of Mrs. Billington as " St. Cecilia," 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds ; " Bacchante," after a 
design by Bartolozzi ; " Madame Catalani," after 
C. M. Pope ; " The Marchioness of Donegal, 
Mrs. and Miss May, and the Earl of Belfast," 
after Masquerier, prove at least that he knew 
how to engrave for colours. He also showed 
this knowledge on the large plate " Catherine of 
France presented to Henry V. of England at the 



Treaty of Troyes," which he executed for the 
Boydells after a picture by Stothard. It is one 
of the few large compositions which have not 
materially suffered in harmony at the hands of 
the colour-printer. 

Antoine Cardon worked on the " Cries of 
London," and he also engraved " Mother's 
Pride " (a portrait of young Jekyll), after Lodder 
(there is a much more attractive print with the 
same title, after Adam Buck) ; Miss Duncan, as 
" Letitia Harding," after J. T. Barber ; " Irish 
Peasants " and " Welch Peasants," after Westall ; 
" Cupid Unveiling Venus," after Cosway ; and 
" The Universal Power of Love," after Kirk. 
He translated some devotional subjects, after 
Rubens, which were most brilliantly printed in 
colours in their proof state. 

Delatre (J. M.), 1 745- 1 840, was one of 
Bartolozzi's most esteemed pupils, and, according 
to his own account, he did a great deal of work 
on many plates that his master signed. He 
engraved after Wheatley, Stothard, Angelica 
Kauffmann, and Hamilton, in a manner very 
little inferior to Ryland. 

Among his best works are " Damon and 
Phoebe," after Harding ; "Strolling Musicians," 
after Rigaud ; " Celestina," after Stothard ; 
" Samuel," after Reynolds ; and the following 
after Angelica Kauffmann: — "Dido invoking 
the Gods before mounting the Funeral Pile," 
" Penelope weeping over the Bow of Ulysses," 
" Posthumus, Consul of Rome," " Beauty, directed 



by Prudence, rejects with scorn the solicitations 
of Folly," " Hammond's Love Elegies," " Calais 
—The SnufF Box" (Sterne), " Moulines— The 
Handkerchief," " Miss Harrop," and " Comic 
and Tragic Muse." " The Children in the 
Wood " he also engraved, after P. W. Tomkins ; 
" May Day or the Happy Lovers," after J. 
Saunders ; " Genius with Sickle and Sheaf," 
after Cipriani ; " The Wheelbarrow," after 
Wheatley, and " Children playing with a 
Mouse," after Hamilton. 

DuM^E (E. J.) has a saleroom value for which 
it is perhaps a little difficult to account. He 
seems to me to lack delicacy in his flesh-tints, 
and he invariably exaggerates any faults in draw- 
ing that he finds in his models, notably in the 
hands, with which he is uniformly unfortunate. 
In addition to these defects, there is a certain 
woolliness about the hair and drapery that 
destroys any possible charm in his figure-sub- 
jects. His principal work was done, in the early 
part of the present century, after Morland, Cos- 
way, and R. West. 

"The Benevolent Lady," "The Discovery," 
" The Fair Seducer," after Morland ; " The 
Love Letter," after R. West ; " Hebe," after 
Cosway ; and " Agatha," after J. R. Smith, are, 
perhaps, the best-known of Dumee's prints. 

DuTERREAu (B.) workcd at the end of the 
eighteenth century in France and England. 
Very little is known of this engraver, but two 
prints by him, " The Squire's Door " and " The 



Farmer's Door," after Morland, are much 
esteemed in colours or monochrome. They 
were so much in favour, and the public demand 
for them was so great, that the plates wore out, 
and the subjects were re-engraved by Levilly 
in his usual inferior manner. Duterreau also 
engraved "The Country Schoolmistress" and 
"The Yorkshire Schoolmistress," after Saunders ; 
" Fancy " and " Simplicity," after Artaud ; and 
he worked on the Bunbury Shakespeare pub- 
lished by Macklin. 

Earlom (Richard), 1743- 1822, was a very 
important and very industrious engraver, largely 
employed by the Boydells. He etched, mezzo- 
tinted, and stippled. He was amongst the few 
engravers who used the point in a mezzotinted 
plate. The public know Earlom best for his 
fruit and flower pieces after Van Huysum and 
Van Os, proofs of which still realise high prices. 
But they are mezzotints. 

Among his stipple-prints are to be found 
" Sensibility " and " Alope," portraits of Lady 
Hamilton, after Romney ; and " Lord Heath- 
field," after Sir Joshua Reynolds. " Cipriani," 
after Rigaud, is hardly interesting, and the 
pretty little " Cupid," after Cipriani, is insigni- 
ficant. The designs for the painted window 
of New College, Oxford, which he executed 
in conjunction with Facius, were magnificently 
colour -printed, and issued to the public in 
proof state. 

Eginton (John), like Blake, merits a chapter, 
257 s 


if not a volume, to himself. Both he and his 
brother were remarkable men in the world of 
little arts ; but their back-painting, and glass- 
painting, and camera- obscura work threw their 
stipple- engravings quite into the shade. The 
historian of photography will, however, find 
reference to their inventions of great interest. 
Both the Egintons, John especially, issued 
prints in colour, of which, perhaps, the most 
notable are : " Setting out to the Fair," " The 
Fairings," " Filial Piety," and " The Affectionate 
Daughter," after Wheatley ; "The Ballad Singer," 
after Singleton ; and " Hebe " and " Adelaide," 
after Hamilton. 

Facius (George Sigismund and Johann Gott- 
lieb) were two brothers attracted to England by 
the Boydell Shakespeare scheme, and they settled 
here in or about 1776. They are known as 
etchers as well as stipple-engravers, but it is on 
their stipple-engraving that their reputation prin- 
cipally rests. Their plate of the " New College 
Window," and their early interest in colour- 
printing, make them worthy of note. Among 
their principal works are the following : 

" Angelica and Medora," " Prince Octavius," 
and " The Golden Age," after West ; " Cupid's 
Pastime," " Industry attended by Patience, and 
assisted by Perseverance, crowned by Honour 
and rewarded with Plenty," " Ariadne abandoned 
by Theseus," " Sappho, inspired by Love, com- 
posing an Ode in honour of Venus," " Sopho- 
nisba, Queen of Carthage," and " Phcenissa, friend 



of Sophonisba," oval prints after Angelica Kauff- 
mann ; " Diana," " Hebe," " Spring," and " Sum- 
mer," after Hamilton ; a " Venus " and " Danae," 
after Titian ; and a number of large prints after 
West, Westall, Hamilton, etc. 

George Facius executed the frontispiece to the 
fourth volume of the Series of Prints after the most 
noted Pictures in England^ which was issued in 
seven volumes by subscription. All the best- 
known stipple-engravers of the day were employed 
on this work, but, on the whole, it proved a 
disappointing production. The prints were 
afterwards sold separately. The pictures were 
from the collections of George III., the Duke 
of Devonshire, the Duke of Newcastle, Lord 
Radnor, Sir Peter Leicester, Lord Bessborough, 
the Duke of Marlborough, Lord Bute, Lord 
Grosvenor, Lord Orford, Peter Delme ; all of 
whom figure in the list of subscribers. 

Freeman (Samuel), 1773- 1857. — The ma- 
jority of his plates were executed at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, and he is of interest to 
a collector of colour-prints chiefly for his work 
after Adam Buck. " The Quarrel " and " The 
Reconciliation," "The Little Busybody," "The 
Four Seasons," " Madame Catalani," and many 
of the children -subjects, have found admirers. 
A number of the Buck prints by Freeman have 
aquatint backgrounds, the stipple is peculiarly 
regular and even, and the colour-printing, in the 
best specimens, delicate and refined. Williamson 
and Cheesman also engraved after Adam Buck. 



The painter has treated his subjects in every case 
with a certain quaintness and simplicity that give 
them a typical and decorative quality, and he has 
dressed his figures, almost without exception, in 
Empire costumes. But the drawing is so singu- 
larly bad that connoisseurs with the highest 
artistic sense banish these " Buck " prints from 
their walls and folios. 

Graham (G.) worked at the end of the 
eighteenth century. The serious business of his 
life was mezzotint, but he executed one or two 
stipple-plates that became popular colour-printed, 
and that still find admirers ; notably " Lucy," 
after C. Hodges, "The Young Nurse and Quiet 
Child," "The Angry Boy and Tired Dog," 
" The Soldier's Return," and " Morning Reflec- 
tion," after Morland. He also engraved several 
of the illustrations for Campbell's Pleasures of 
Hope ; and a few impressions from three of the 
plates were subsequently issued separately in 

Grozer (Joseph) worked about 1784-1792. 
I suppose it is hardly allowable to call Grozer a 
stipple-engraver, but he executed a few plates in 
this medium, and, even if they are looked upon 
as the merest quips of a serious chalcographer, 
the measure of his reputation as a mezzotint- 
engraver deserves that they should not be passed 
over entirely without mention ; particularly as 
such quips include " The Age of Innocence " and 
" Lady St. Asaph," after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
and " Morning, or the Reflection," after Ward. 



Haward (Francis), 1759- 1797. — He en- 
graved principally after Sir Joshua Reynolds and 
Angelica Kauffmann. Perhaps his best work in 
stipple is Mrs. Siddons as " The Tragic Muse," 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds. But by far the most 
popular, printed in colours, were "The Infant 
Academy " and " Cymon and Iphigenia," from 
the same artist. 

Haward's speciality as a stipple-engraver was 
miniature subjects, of which "Flora and Zephyr," 
"Psyche and Zephyr," "Hebe," and "Juno," 
after Hamilton ; " Astarte and Zadig," after 
Hone ; and " Cupid crowning the Arts," from 
his own design, are the most charming. 

Josi (C). — Died about 1828. Josi was born 
in Holland, came early to this country, and 
worked under J. R. Smith, a fact he gratefully 
noted on his plates. He wrote a short life of 
Ploos Van Amstel, in which there is a good deal 
of autobiography. He had previously published 
for, or in conjunction with. Van Amstel, a 
volume of imitations of Dutch drawings, partly 
printed in colour in a combination of aquatint 
and etching. Ploos Van Amstel was a rich 
amateur ; C. Josi was an engraver, a publisher, 
and, what we call to-day, a dealer. He was a 
man of great taste and knowledge, and, reading 
between the lines of any work executed by the 
two men in common, it is not difficult to imagine 
that Van Amstel was largely indebted to Josi for 
more than the art-treasures he found for him, 
and the introduction he wrote to their joint book. 



Several of Josi's stipple-prints are popular in 
colours, and fetch high prices : for instance, the 
" Innocent Revenge " and " Innocent Mischief," 
after Westall, published in 1795. "The Little 
Gipsy," after the same artist, is an attractive little 
print, and " The Peasant's Repast " and " The 
Labourer's Luncheon," after Morland, deserve a 
passing notice. There is in existence a portrait 
by Josi of Cosway, executed in stipple and printed 
in colours, but I have not been fortunate enough 
to see a fine example. 

Keating (George), 1762- 1842, was an Irish 
engraver of exceptional taste. He was a pupil 
of Dickinson, and mezzotint was his real medium, 
although he executed almost as many plates with 
the point as with the scraper. He worked after 
Sir Joshua Reynolds and Romney, Gainsborough 
and Lawrence, and perhaps his talent in selection, 
as much as his talent in delineation, is responsible 
for the esteem in which he was held. But, like 
the majority of the most cultured of the mezzo- 
tinters, he is never quite happy in colour. Either 
his plates are too large, or his stippling is too 
coarse, to suit the exactions of that delicate 
mistress. He suffered, like so many of his con- 
temporaries, from the absence of a formula, for 
want of an authoritative decision as to the possi- 
bilities and limitations of the printer's palette. 
Compare, for example, an early impression in 
colour after Romney, of " St. Cecilia " by Keat- 
ing, with a " Serena," after the same artist, by 
J. Jones. The one engraver set the printer an 



impossible task, the other exactly understood how 
far he might legitimately go. " Camilla Faint- 
ing " and " Camilla Recovering," after Singleton, 
from the novel of David Simple^ are fair examples 
of his method. 

Lewis (Frederick Christian), 1 779-1 841. — 
His principal work was done in the last century, 
when colour-printing was dying out. He illus- 
trated Ottley's School of Design, and engraved a 
large number of portraits, after Sir T. Lawrence, 
in imitation of drawings. But perhaps the 
public will be more interested in hearing that 
he was a pupil of Joseph Constantine Stadler, 
another of the engravers after Adam Buck. 
Lewis used the roulette in his delicate stipple- 
work in such a manner as to give his prints a 
mechanical effect that is not always pleasing. 
Many of them were issued in monochrome, 
slightly touched with the brush. 

Meadows (R. M.) worked about 1780-181 1. 
His best works are : " Gathering Wood " and 
"Gathering Fruit," after G. Morland, 1795; 
"A Ferncutter's Child" and "A Girl Gather- 
ing Mushrooms," after Westall ; and a large 
print after the same artist entitled " A Storm 
in Harvest." " Attention " and " Inattention," 
after J. R. Smith (a charming pair) ; "Juvenile 
Culprits Detected," after R. M. Paye ; " The 
Fortitude of Sir T. More," after Hamilton ; 
" Ethelinda and the Knight" and "Ethelinda 
restored to her Father," after Stothard ; " The 
Marchioness of Thomond," after Thomson ; 



" Gipsies stealing a Child " and " The Child 
Restored," after Singleton, are others of his 
colour-prints. He worked for the Boydell 
Shakespeare and also for the Bunbury Shake- 
speare, published by Macklin, 1 792-1 796. He 
published three lectures on engraving in 181 1, 
and died in 181 2. 

Meyer (Henry), 178 2- 1847, ^^^ ^ nephew 
of Hoppner, and a pupil of Bartolozzi. He 
engraved in mezzotint as well as in stipple, and 
was peculiarly successful in portraits. One that 
he engraved of Alderman Boydell, after Stuart, is 
remarkable at once for its vigour and its delicacy. 
He was one of the original members of the 
Society of British Artists. Now and again, 
stipple-prints in colour by Henry Meyer come 
up in salerooms : they are always refined, but 
somewhat mechanical and not particularly in- 
teresting. The best are Mrs. Jerningham as 
" Hebe " ; " Psyche " (Honble. Mrs. Paget), 
after Hoppner ; Lady Leicester as " Hope," 
after Lawrence ; " Pam, Flush, and Loo," after 
Opie ; " Father's Delight," after W. Derby 
(companion to "Mother's Pride," after Lodder). 
He also engraved a number of ladies' portraits 
for Anne Mee's Gallery of Beauties. 

MiNAsi (James Anthony), 1 776-1 865, of 
whom an excellent account is to be found in 
Mr. Tuer's Bartolozzi and His Works, worked 
late into the nineteenth century. He was one of 
Senefelder's earliest victims, and I should never 
have considered him seriously but for his stipple- 



prints after Cosway. " A Lady with a Young 
Girl," for instance, proves that it was only lack 
of inclination, and not of capacity, that prevented 
him successfully pursuing this branch of his art. 
"The Apotheosis of Princess Amelia," after L. 
A. Byam ; " Ferdinand IV. of Italy," a portrait 
of " Mrs. Whiteford," and some of the Holbein 
Heads are amongst the work that has survived 
him. In the later 'twenties of the nineteenth 
century he was living in Regent Street, and his 
son, a clever young flautist, gave concerts and 
gathered around him a musical circle. To any 
of their friends who were interested in olden 
days and the plastic arts the old man would 
gossip with great freedom. My own first in- 
terest in stipple-engraving dates from the recol- 
lection of some of these conversations repeated 
by my grandfather in his old age. 

Ogborne (John), 1725-1795. — Ogborne was 
a pupil of Bartolozzi, indefatigable in industry, 
successful in his results, thoroughly characteristic 
of the period. He was largely employed by 
Boydell, and he associated his daughter Mary 
with him in some of his later prints. He started 
his professional life as a line-engraver, and did 
some fairly good plates after Van Dyck and 
Lucas de Heere. He also etched and bit his 
plates with aquafortis, using the graver after- 
wards, but very sparingly, which accounted for 
the comparative failure of this series of his 
work. He had a shop at one time in Great 
Portland Street, and it was here that the best 



part of the colour-printing of the stipple- 
engravings, which were, after all, the backbone 
of his trade, was done under his personal super- 
intendence. I have seen some of his price-lists, 
from which it appears that, when he published 
an engraving in monochrome and in colour 
simultaneously, he charged only double for the 
latter. This is very inexplicable to me, though 
many of the publishers of the day preserved the 
same proportion. It is a proportion in no way 
commensurate with the difference in skill and 
even in actual labour ; labour, of course, was 
cheap at the time, but skill is never a drug in 
any market. 

Among Ogborne's best-known and most ad- 
mired works is the volume of Specimens of Modern 
Masters^ dedicated to Lavinia, Countess Spencer, 
only the presentation copy of which was printed 
in colours ; this being, I understand, still in the 
possession of the family. Also I may mention 
the following : — a set of " The Seasons," done in 
conjunction with Nutter and White ; " Dormant 
Love," a charming miniature subject after Kauff- 
mann, which has been extensively reproduced ; 
" Abelard offering Hymen to Eloisa " and " The 
Power of Love," after the same artist ; " The 
Guardian Angel," after Cosway (a fat-faced, badly 
drawn Cupid in the chalk manner) ; " Sunshine " 
and "Storm," "Cottage Breakfast," "Cottage 
Supper," and " Rural Misfortune," after Bigg ; 
a fascinating little fancy print, " Marchande de 
Cupidon," after a drawing by Bartolozzi, from 



the antique ; illustrations, after Stothard, of 
"Caroline and Lindorf"; "Ballad Monger," 
after Walton ; " Elysium, or Cupid Punished," 
finely printed in colour and published at fifteen 
shillings ; " The Village Maids," after Stothard ; 
a set of " History," " Music," and " Painting," 
after his own designs (very poor) ; " The Birth 
of American Liberty " (a crowded engraving, 
well illustrating what should not be printed in 
colour) ; " The Venus of Toterdown Hill," 
after Harding ; " The Sad Story," after Westall ; 
Mrs. Jordan as " The Country Girl," after 
Romney ; " Eleanor Gwynne," after Lely (I 
have seen an impression of this print with Barto- 
lozzi's name attached to it) ; illustrations to 
Cecilia^ 1784; and a very large number of the 
Boydell Shakespeare series, for Hamlet, Henry VI., 
and King John. 

Ogborne (Mary) did one or two plates, or 
signed one or two plates, in which her father is 
supposed to have had no hand, but they are of 
little importance. 

Pariset (D. p.), a French engraver, was 
born at Lyons in 1740. He was a pupil of 
Demarteau, and he joined Ryland when the 
latter first established himself in the Royal 
Exchange. Later on he came under the influ- 
ence of Bartolozzi, and is one of the group of 
engravers whose plates the popular Italian was 
supposed to have signed. But in Pariset's case 
the accusation would appear to have been un- 
founded ; for Pariset had a distinct style and 



personality of his own ; delicate, careful, and 
sincere. He proved his own plates in colour, 
and he managed his palette with a facility that 
never failed. The miniature portraits which he 
stippled and printed in colours, after Falconet's 
famous series of " Twelve Leading London 
Artists," place us under a distinct debt of grati- 
tude to him. Sir William Chambers and Sir 
Joshua Reynolds were amongst the portrayed 
artists, so was Francis Cotes. Others of his por- 
traits — "James Paine," " Horatio Walpole, the 
fourth Earl of Orford," and many contemporary 
celebrities — are much sought after by aspiring 

Paye (Richard Morton), about 1778- 1820, 
was a chaser on metal, a painter, a poet, and 
finally an engraver. We have only " Peter 
Pindar's " word for his having been a poet, 
for none of his works seem to have been pub- 

Wolcot and Paye were friends, but they 
quarrelled, and the venomous tongue of the 
unscrupulous satirist was never weary of malign- 
ing his sensitive friend. Paye made a feeble 
effort at retaliation ; he published a caricature of 
the Doctor in a bad imitation of Hogarth's satire 
on Churchill ; Wolcot was depicted as a bear 
standing before an easel. But after this issue 
he discovered himself to be too sensitive, or too 
proud, to continue the warfare. He made no 
further fight ; he suffered in silence, and unfor- 
tunately his work suffered with him. He became 



ill and poor, and the one evil accentuated the 
other, until death ended both. To me he is 
another of those pathetic shadow-figures of the 
eighteenth century ; wanting only a Forster and 
a little more talent to prove him a Goldsmith. 
J. Young and Valentine Green engraved his 
pictures, and he himself engraved " Puss in 
Durance," " No Dance, no Supper," and " Dis- 
appointment," all of them printed in colour. 
Paye left a son who also engraved in stipple. 

Phillips (Sam), about 1797, is chiefly remark- 
able because he was neither Charles Phillips, the 
early mezzotint engraver, nor George Henry 
Phillips, the late one, with both of whom he 
has at one time or another been confused. 
" The Birth of Shakespeare," and " The Birth of 
Otway," after Westall," are two of his well- 
known colour-prints, as are also " Meditation " 
and " Gaiety " after the same artist. " The 
Guardian Angel," after Maria Cosway, is another. 
He also engraved " Ariadne," " Bacchus," and 
" Innocence," after Richard Cosway, and three 
of the set of " The Five Senses," after Schiavo- 
netti. Perhaps his best stipple-plate is " Taste 
in High Life," after Hogarth. 

PicoT (Victor Marie), 1 744-1 802, was another 
of Ryland's foreign friends who joined him in 
England. Picot married Ravenet's daughter, and 
was elected a member of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists. His son, Louis Victor, was the 
popular miniaturist. On the death of his first 
wife Victor Marie returned to his native country, 



and settled at Abbeville, where he joined his 
brother in engraving and exporting prints. 

Among his plates in stipple are a number of 
female heads w^ith oriental head-dresses, and a 
pretty print entitled " Lovers," from his own 
design. They are all printed in red. One of 
his best-known works is Mrs. Cargill as "Clara," 
in Sheridan's Duenna, after Peters ; it is gener- 
ally attributed to Walker, by whom it was pub- 
lished. This celebrated actress was drowned in 
1784 in the wreck of the Nancy packet, on her 
way from India. Her body was found on the 
rocks of Scilly, with an infant in her arms. 

Picot also engraved the well-known and 
much - sought - after print of "The Fencing 
Match." This famous match between Chevalier 
D'Eon and M. de St. George took place before 
the Prince of Wales, several of the nobility, and 
many eminent fencing - masters, on the 9th of 
April 1787, at Carlton House. 

Other colour-prints by Picot are the "Nymphs 
Sporting," and " Diana and her Nymphs Bath- 
ing," after Zuccarelli. 

Pollard (Robert), 1755- 1835. — An artist, 
driven into the ranks of the engravers by poverty 
and a non-appreciative public. He was a pupil 
of the equally unfortunate genius Richard Wilson, 
and was the last surviving member of the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists. He engraved in 
various styles, and occasionally mingled several 
on one plate with anything but satisfactory 
results. But when he kept to stipple and super- 



intended the colour-printing he was more 
successful. Amongst the proofs of his success 
are to be found, in addition to those after his 
own designs, " Beauty governed by Prudence, 
crowned by Virtuous Love," after A. Kauff- 
mann ; and " Love " and " Friendship," after 

Reading (Burnet), who worked about 1770- 
1820, was a Colchester man, and enjoyed the 
unique position of being at once riding and 
drawing master to Lord Pomfret. He was a 
friend of the elder Angelo, and was not too old 
to join Harry Angelo in the Wargrave orgies. 
His stipple - prints include " Lavinia and her 
Mother," after Bigg ; " Charlotte at the Tomb 
of Werther," from his own design ; and a large 
number of contemporary portraits, both after Fal- 
conet and from his own drawing and engraving. 
Amongst the best-known are those of "Jeremiah 
Meyer," miniature painter to George IIL, the 
ubiquitous "David Garrick," "Ozias Humphrey, 
R.A.," "George Stubbs," "Francis Hayman," 
and " Paul Sandby." He was never a first-class 
engraver, but there is a certain quality about his 
portraits that lifts them out of the sphere of 
amateurism. They are slight, unimportant, but 
generally intelligent and characteristic. 

Ryder (Thomas), 1746-18 10, was a super- 
excellent stipple - engraver, and employed the 
colour-printer almost invariably. He engraved 
eight large plates for the Boydell Shakespeare 
Gallery, and they arc amongst the best of that 



poor lot. " The Murder of James I., King of 
Scotland," after Opie, is one of the worst of his 
engravings printed in colour ; " The Hours 
Crowning Virtuous Love," a miniature after 
Cosway, is one of the best. In fine condition, it 
is a perfect little gem, and shows everything 
the united arts are capable of producing. The 
children's heads in this print are supposed to be 
portraits of Colonel Braddyl's family. He also 
engraved many of Bunbury's ill-drawn, well- 
conceived designs. 

Illustrations of" Charlotte and Werther," after 
C. R. Ryley ; " The Last Supper," after West ; 
" Prudence and Beauty," " Penelope taking down 
the Bow of Ulysses," after Kauffmann ; " Lady 
Pembroke," after Hogarth ; " A Boy of Glamor- 
ganshire," " A Girl of Carmarthenshire," and 
" Miss Linley," after Westall, show how well 
Ryder varied his style to suit his subjects. He 
associated himself with Cosse in " The Genius 
of Modesty preventing Love unveiling Beauty," 
after Cipriani, and this proves an exception to 
the rule " f union fait la force " ; it is a weak and 
unimaginative piece of work, reflecting credit on 
none of the three artists concerned in its produc- 
tion. The " Visit to the Woman of the Lime 
Trees," after Ramberg ; " The Captive," after 
Wright ; and " Scenes from the Arabian Nights^"* 
after Bunbury, might also be added to the long 
list of stipple-prints by Ryder. 

ScoRODooMOFF (Gabriel), 1748- 1792, was a 
young Russian draughtsman who came over to 



England to learn engraving in Bartolozzi's famous 
school. Bryan says he was the first Russian who 
obtained a reputation as an engraver. But it was 
chiefly in the reflected light of his master that he 
seems to have shone. As was the case with all 
Bartolozzi's pupils, colour was largely employed 
in the issues of his engravings. 

His principal plates include " The Parting of 
Romeo and Juliet," after West, and a suite of six 
pieces for the Boydells, after Angelica Kaufl^- 
mann — these are circular prints, neoclassic in 
design ; " The Young Circassian," after Peters ; 
a large number of Russian portraits, and 
"Justice," " Prudence," "Fortitude," and "Tem- 
perance," published as " The Four Virtues." 
They are none of them epoch-making. He also 
engraved " The Duty of a Mother," " Maternal 
Instruction," after West ; " Abelard and Eloisa 
surprised by Fulbert," and " The Parting of 
Abelard and Eloisa," after Kauflrnann ; to all of 
which the same remark applies. 

Scott (Edmund), 1 746-1810, was one of the 
best stipple-engravers of his day, and was amongst 
the most original of the many famous pupils of 
Bartolozzi. He was engraver to Prince Frederick, 
Duke of York, and one of the first of the plates 
for which he claimed the entire credit was a 
superb one of his patron's brother, the Prince of 
Wales. A large plate dedicated " To the Memory 
of Captain Richard Price, his daughter, and 
others, who perished on board the Halscivcll^ 
East Indiaman, wrecked near Seacombe, Isle of 

273 T 


Purbeck, 1786,*' is an ambitious piece of work 
after Stothard. It is, however, coarse, harsh, 
and discordant. The size and subject place it 
outside the limits of either of the arts employed 
in its manufacture, but the subject ensured a 
contemporary success far from merited. A 
charming little " Cottage Girl," after Braine, 
on the other hand, is highly characteristic both 
of artist and medium. 

" Lingo and Cowslip " (Mr. Edwin and Mrs. 
Wells in O'Keeffe's Agreeable Surprise), after 
Singleton ; " Palemon and Lavinia " and " The 
Children in the Wood," after Stothard, are other 
interesting prints. Morland, Russell, Singleton, 
Dunthorne, Ramberg, and Lady Diana Beau- 
clerk were all glad to supply Edmund Scott 
with designs for the colour - prints which he 
issued, or to encourage him to engrave plates for 
their books. Among desirable prints by E. 
Scott may be mentioned " The Age of Bliss," 
after Russell ; " Margaret," " Rosina," and 
" Stella," after Dunthorne ; " The Modern 
Graces," after Bunbury ; " Tom Jones and 
Molly Seagrim," " Tom Jones and Sophia 
Western," " Boys Robbing an Orchard," and 
" The Angry Farmer," after Morland. 

Sherwin (John Keyse), 1751-1790, was the 
son of a Sussex carpenter, to which trade he was 
originally apprenticed. But his artistic gifts 
attracted the attention of one of his father's 
customers, and in the result he was sent first to 
Astley, and then to Bartolozzi, to learn drawing 



and engraving. His stipple-work does not repre- 
sent his talents at all adequately. He went very- 
near to WooUett in his line-engravings, and suc- 
ceeded that master in his appointment as Engraver 
to the King. He is supposed to have largely 
assisted Bartolozzi in the famous " Clytie," after 

Among his principal works in stipple are Mrs. 
Abington as " Roxalana," after Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds ; " A Tale of Love," after Bunbury ; 
" Marriage of Lucinda and Fernando," after T. 
Stothard, which is another of the rare prints on 
which the colour-printer has been allowed to 
inscribe his name (" Printed in colour by T. B. 
Freeman " is on the margin) ; "Toilet of Venus " 
(supposed to be a portrait of Mrs. Robinson), 
"Meditation," "The Deserted Village" (this 
pair in a mixture of line and stipple), and a little 
gem engraved from the antique, representing the 
marriage of Cupid and Psyche ; all from his own 
design. Also there is a fine portrait of" Mrs. 
Hartley " in the character of Andromache, and a 
quaint picture of " Mrs. Robinson " seated before 
a mirror, wearing a curiously large hat, engraved 
in very fine stipple, almost as delicate as the work 
of Caroline Watson. 

Simon (Pierre), 1750-1810. — Generally called 
" Simon the Younger." He executed a number 
of the plates for Worlidge's Antique Gcrns^ and 
was extensively employed by the Boydells, tor 
whose Shakespeare Gallery he did his best work. 
Perhaps his finest, certainly his best-known, 


work in stipple is "Angels' Heads" (Miss 
Frances Isabella Ker Gordon), after Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, 1789. The original is in the National 
Gallery, but the engraving has been so con- 
stantly and variously reproduced that one is apt 
to forget the charm of the picture in its famil- 
iarity. Simon's print of it still commands high 

"The Sleeping Nymph," after Opie, and 
" The Credulous Lady and Astrologer," after J. 
R. Smith, are popular, and two pleasant com- 
positions illustrating " The Adventures of Tom 
Jones," after drawings by Downman, deserve 
popularity. "The Three Holy Children" is after 
Peters ; " Fair Emaline " and " Young Thorn- 
hill's First Interview " are both after Stothard. 
" Celadon and Celia " and " The Lover's Anger," 
after Wheatley, are prints by Simon which I 
have met with in colour — met with and passed by. 

Smith (Anker), 1759- 1819; (Benjamin), 
1 789-1 83 3. — They were both pupils of Barto- 
lozzi. The former was more successful, or at 
any rate more largely employed, in line than in 
stipple, and engraving for book-illustration was 
his great forte. His colour-work is unimportant 
and scarcely deserves a passing note. Benjamin 
Smith, on the other hand, although he lived 
well into the nineteenth century, was an indefatig- 
able seeker after colour-effects, and rarely engraved 
a plate that did not in one state or another come 
into the colour-printer's hands. He engraved 
the celebrated " Sigismunda," after Hogarth, 



about which Allan Cunningham and the author 
of The Life of Nollekens are so pleasingly anec- 
dotal, and also a portrait of " William Hogarth 
and his Dog." A very good portrait of George 
III., very carefully printed in colour, is charac- 
teristic of his skill as an engraver ; and a couple 
of prints after Romney, of " Shakespeare nursed 
by Tragedy and Comedy " and " The Infant 
Shakespeare attended by Nature and the Pas- 
sions," testify to his indiscriminate desire for 

SoiRON (F. D.), about 1790. — His fame as a 
stipple-engraver rests chiefly on the two prints 
after Morland, entitled respectively " A Tea 
Garden " and " St. James's Park." Finely printed 
in colours, they fetch anything from £100 up- 
wards, at which, or indeed at any figure, they 
are a very enviable possession. The record price 
of >r250 was given for them at Christie's early 
in the year 1902. There are a large number of 
copies and imitations in the market, and several 
" states." The earliest is without borders, the 
second with, and in the third there is a certain 
amount of landscape added, which turns the 
prints into squares. There is also in existence a 
horrible French copy. Of all these misfortunes, 
for in a portfolio anything but the first two states 
is a misfortune, collectors should beware. But, 
like the infant with the much-advertised soap, 
they " won't be happy " until they get these two 
engravings, which as subject-pictures, character- 
istic both of period and painter, and as specimens 



of the united arts /« excelsis^ are equally repre- 
sentative and charming. 

Another interesting engraving of Soiron's is 
" The Promenade in St. James's Park," after that 
celebrated topographer Dayes, which contains 
portraits of the Prince of Wales and the Duke of 
York. Some plates, after designs by Bunbury, 
show that Soiron was not entirely dependent 
upon the skill of the artist for the value of his 
engravings, and prove also that he understood 
what was necessary for the colour-printer. 

Strutt (Joseph), 1749- 1802, is the well- 
known author of the Biographical History of 
Engravers, the plates of which were executed by 
himself ; a valuable volume which at the time 
of its appearance was, nevertheless, very severely 
criticised by George Steevens. 

Strutt also published a large number of other 
books illustrated in the same way. The Pilgrim's 
Progress, for instance. His next important work 
was on The Manners and Customs and Dresses of 
the English, the first volume published 1796, and 
the second 1799. The last work he completed 
was the volume entitled Sports and Pastimes of the 
People of England. 

Amongst the most interesting of his remains, 
however, was a manuscript romance of the 
fifteenth century entitled Queen Hoc-Hall, which 
Sir Walter Scott finished in 1808. He seems 
to have been a good master as well as a capable 
executant, for Ogborne, Nutter, and Meadows 
were all apprentices to him. So was Ryland's 



eldest legitimate son, but he seems to have taken 
but slight advantage of his opportunities. 

Joseph Strutt's colour-printed stipple- plates 
include " The New Sash," after Russell ; " Caro- 
line and Walstein," " Active Love," " Cupid and 
Campaspe," " The Power of Innocence " and 
" The Innocent Stratagem," " Nurs'd at Home," 
" Nurs'd Abroad," and a number of others after 
Stothard, from whose works he engraved con- 
tinually. " The Imprudence of Candaules, King 
of Lydia," after E. Le Sueur, was admired in its 

Vendramini (Giovanni), 1769- 1839. — He 
was born at Roncade, near Bassano, Italy, came 
to England in 1780, and enrolled himself imme- 
diately under the banner of Bartolozzi, becoming 
one of the best of his pupils. With a grace and 
attractiveness in person and deportment that were 
wanting in his master, he became so popular 
amongst the patrons of the studio, the print- 
sellers, and the public, that when Bartolozzi 
retired to Portugal in 1802 Vendramini took 
over the business, the clientele, and the house at 
Fulham, together with a certain number of 
pupils. Three years later, however, either in- 
stinctive restlessness, or the falling-off of public 
patronage, induced him to make a journey to 
Russia, where he immediately found employ- 
ment with the Czar. Unfortunately for the 
engraver, his efforts met with only too much 
appreciation, and when, wearied of the capital, 
he sought for permission to leave, his passports 



were refused him, and on his persisting in his 
request, he was imprisoned. He ultimately 
escaped in disguise, and fled to England. Cured 
by this experience of his desire for foreign travel, 
he married an English wife, and settled down 
finally to work. He was employed by Colnaghi, 
and executed five of "The Cries of London," 
after Wheatley. He also engraved " The Power 
of Love," after Pellegrini, and many works of the 
old masters. 

In addition to " The Cries of London," the 
following prints by Vendramini are often met 
with in colour : " Comedy " and " Tragedy," 
" Love Caressed," "Love Rejected," "Sympathy" 
and " Serenity," after Cipriani, and " St. John the 
Baptist," after Raphael. 

Ward (James), 1769-1859, was a brother of 
William Ward, and was apprenticed in the first 
instance to J. R. Smith. James painted as well 
as engraved, and, considering the period, was 
very successful with animal subjects. Stipple- 
prints in colour executed by him are occasionally 
to be met with, but in 1794 he was appointed 
painter and mezzotint engraver to the Prince of 
Wales, after which he gave up stipple, and, for 
obvious reasons, it is unnecessary to follow his 
career here. 

Watson (Caroline), 1760- 1 814, was a 
daughter of James Watson, the Irish mezzo- 
tinter, who was one of James M'Ardell's most 
distinguished pupils. Caroline Watson was a 
great favourite at Court, and was extensively 



patronised in the early part of the reign of 
George III. by the Earl of Bute, who procured 
for her the appointment of Engraver to Queen 
Charlotte. By the time that the Earl, now 
Marquis, of Bute had fallen into disfavour, how- 
ever, her own talents and the Queen's conserva- 
tism had gained for her a permanent position. 
She engraved the homely features of the young 
Princesses, after Hoppner, when they were still 
children, and lived long enough to delineate their 
unfortunate niece, the Princess Charlotte, in the 
year of her marriage. The first two had an 
extensive sale in colour, and the plates went on 
printing long after they were worn out. They 
are therefore by no means rare in the later con- 
dition, but early impressions are still well worth 

Caroline Watson was one of the most talented 
and charming engravers of the day ; in her hands 
the art reached its extreme limit. Her finest 
stipple-work is as delicate as a miniature paint- 
ing ; as soft, and as full of play, as a mezzotint. 
She was independent of the colour-printer, and 
never employed him on a plate in its early state. 
She not only engraved in stipple, but, under her 
father's tuition, learned to scrape a mezzotint 
plate, and later to work in aquatint, in which 
medium, by the way, she produced the set ot 
" Female Virtue " and " Female Dissipation," 
after Maria Cosway. 

Amongst the best of her stipple-plates, per- 
haps, are the " Woronzow Children," and 



" Charles Anderson Pelham (son of Lord Yar- 
borough) with his Lady and their Six Children," 
after Cosway. Impressions of this latter print 
are very rare ; they are without inscription and 
are all engravers' proofs — the plate was either 
lost or destroyed, according to Dodd, but with- 
drawn by the family, according to information I 
have received. The best also include " Robert 
Auriol, Earl ofKinnoull," and "The Countess of 
Kinnoull," " Viola," " The Goddess of Wisdom," 
and " Mrs. Drummond and her Children," after 
Shelley ; " Lady Elizabeth Foster," after Down- 
man (one of the Richmond House set) ; The 
Honourable Mrs. Stanhope as " Contemplation," 
and " Prince William Frederick " in Vandyck 
dress, after Sir Joshua Reynolds ; two of the 
Romney heads of Lady Hamilton, and " Miss 
Bover," after Hoppner. 

Others are " Filial Piety," after Russell ; Mr. 
Kemble and Mrs. Siddons as " Tancred and 
Sigismunda," after Shirriff. Caroline Watson 
also engraved Mrs. Siddons as " The Grecian 
Daughter," after R. E. Pine ; " Psyche," and 
" Adoration," after Beechey. She was very suc- 
cessful also with her portraits of men, amongst 
which one might particularise : " Sir Joshua 
Reynolds," "Sir Benjamin West," " Ozias 
Humphrey," "Dr. Chauncey," "W. Woollett," 
and " Sir James Harris." 

With Caroline Watson I bring to an end this 
short supplementary list of stipple -engravers. 
It is by no means inclusive. Stipple-engraving 


was a comparatively easy art, and it is not un- 
usual to meet a really charming specimen signed 
by an unknown name. I myself am the pos- 
sessor of a print entitled " Beauty, Love, and 
Pleasure," which is an excellent engraving, and 
a super- excellent colour- print, but is to all 
intents and purposes an anonymous work. And 
as there are many examples of authors who have 
produced but one book whereon their fame can 
rest, so in the same way there are several stipple- 
engravers whose names are only familiar to us by 
one or two prints of value and interest. The 
following are a few such instances, and I have no 
doubt the list could be added to considerably : — 

Adam (T.) — " Friendship," after Van Assen. 

Baldrey (J.) — "Evelina," "Cecilia," after 

Birch (W.) — Mrs. Robinson as " Contempla- 
tion," after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Clarke (J.) — " Silence," " Guardian Angels," 
after Bartolozzi. 

Cooper (R.) — "Mrs. Russell Manners," after 
Stoehling ; " Love Wounded," " Love Healed," 
after Shelley. 

Fogg (A.)—" The Blackberry Gatherer," 
"The Cowslip Gatherer," after Hamilton. 

Jenkins (D.) — " A Nymph Feeding Swans," 
after Angelica Kauffmann. 

Legoux (Louis). — " Bacchante," after Dovvn- 
mann ; " Natural Philosophy" and "Navigation." 

Martin (E.)—" The Tender Mother," a set 
of six. 



Michel (J. B.) — "Peasants with Fruit and 
Flowers," after Peters. 

Nugent (T.)— " Mrs. Sheridan and Child," 
after Hoppner. 

Orme (D.)— "The Royal Rose," "The Glass 
of Pleasure." 

Prattent (T.) — "Discipline," "Puss in 
Favour," after Morland. 

Sailliar (L.) — " Prince of Wales," " Duke 
of Clarence," and a set after Cosway. 

Sedgwick (W.) — " Brotherly Affection," after 
Angelica Kauffmann. 

Spilsbury (J.)— "The Flower Girl," after 
Angelica Kauffmann. 

Vincent (F.) — " Christ's Hospital," after J. 

Williams (E.) — " Lindamira." 

Being fully conscious how much further the 
whole subject could have been carried, I am 
anxious to add a few words of advice to any 
amateur who, having read this book, may dis- 
cover a desire to join the ranks of the collectors. 
Two sentences contain the pith of what I would 

If you want to furnish your walls or your port- 
folios with eighteenth-century prints^ and have little 
or no practical experience^ frequent the establishment 
of an honest dealer, and use it as a hot- house in which 
to grow your taste. Do not grudge the money to keep 
the f re burning. 

It is quite possible that any one who takes 



this advice, in its entirety, will buy, in the first 
instance, according to the wishes of the dealer. 
But, as he gains experience, and the dealer 
realises him as a regular customer, he will find 
himself accommodated in a thousand ways that 
he would otherwise miss. 

The honest and intelligent print-seller, and 
there are such people, will take back or ex- 
change, will search for pendants, will draw 
attention to sales, will assist in the hanging and 
framing, will, as soon as a genuine appreciation 
is defined, often go out of his way to gratify it. 

An aspiring collector should realise that the 
days of " wonderful bargains " are over, or, if 
such are still to be had, they do not come in the 
way of the inexperienced. A really fine stipple- 
print in colour, by a good engraver, after a well- 
known artist, cannot be paid for too highly ; 
should he haggle when such is ofifered to him, 
the next chance that occurs will be given to a 
more generous client. There is only a limited 
number of really fine things in the market, and 
there is practically an unlimited demand. 

It may further be as well incidentally to point 
out that to sit for hours looking at a hundred- 
pound note is an entertainment that will soon 
pall. But the pleasure of gazing at a really fine 
print is practically everlasting. 

As a precautionary measure, — for the above 
reads, perhaps, as if I advocate indiscriminate 
buying, — I should further add ; when in doubt, — 
wait. A print may be looked at, and left. If it is 



the right thing and taste is sprouting, it will be 
found to be a haunting thing, and desire will grow 
ever more desperate. There is no real danger in 
the delay, for the dealer, if he understands and 
values his customer, and knows he is offering him 
a treasure, will keep it for him, or even let him 
have it home on approval. If, on the other 
hand, the doubt be based on good grounds, and 
the print have serious flaw, such flaw will grow 
in consequence, and the hesitation be justified, 
and will but raise the would-be purchaser in the 
estimation of the dealer, to his ultimate benefit. 

But it is wonderful how soon doubt and 
hesitation disappear when once the fascinating 
game of print-collecting is duly learned. 

If, however, instead of taking the foregoing 
hints, the would-be collector, even, with this 
book, and a natural instinct, to guide him, pre- 
fers to learn to play it in his own way, and, 
having the vanity of ignorance, wanders from 
shop to shop, and from saleroom to saleroom ; 
he will be in the position of the man who buys 
his knowledge of cards from sharpers. Every 
man's hand will be against him, and he will find 
himself in the unenviable position of " pigeon." 
A possible occasional bargain, or win, will be 
balanced by a variety of losses, by the acquisition 
of a vast amount of rubbish, and by numberless 
deceptions and overcharges. An aspiring buyer 
must be educated to his requirements. And for 
such an education a master, or trustworthy guide, 
is essential. 



Two or three other suggestions may perhaps 
be found worthy of consideration. The question 
of " states " is a very debatable one, and not, I 
think, quite so important as it is usually con- 
sidered. As I am nearing the end of my space 
and have already said something of this matter, 
I will summarise my views briefly. 

If the collection is to be for the portfolio ; 
" state " is of importance, " margin " is of im- ^ 
portance, " publication line," " title," everything, j 
is of importance. But if the collection is to be ! 
for the walls, margins and all the rest of it sink 
into insignificance, and their consideration may | 
be absolutely discarded. For the walls, once j 
the subject has been approved, nothing but brilli- ' 
ancy of impression need be considered at all. 
And, in brilliancy of impression, I have seen a 
third, or print state, almost equal to a so-called 
" proof." There is no decoration nor beauty 
in a margin, and the money value put upon 
it by the dealers is chiefly a sentimental one. 
As a matter of fact, the large majority of colour- 
prints look better cut, and framed close. In this 
way they hold their own with water-colours of 
the same period, and can safely be hung together 
with them. 

Another point to which it is perhaps as well 
to draw attention is the value of variety, if the 
collection be for decorative purposes ; and the 
value of uniformity, if it be for the portfolio. 
That is to say, if buying for the walls, colours 
or monochromes, stipple or mezzotint, beautiful 



women, illustrious men, children, fancy-subjects, 
can be bought promiscuously. If buying for 
the portfolio, greater interest will be found in 
specialising, and grouping the collection under 
subjects, engravers, or painters. 

A word about framing and I have done. 

Old prints should never be put in elaborately 
decorated modern frames. The simplest Adams 
mouldings should be used for all engravings of 
this period, either in black and gold, or in gold ; 
there are two or three of these mouldings being 
constantly repeated, which are both inexpensive 
and effective. 

The closer together the prints are hung, the 
better will be the general effect. 

And now, before I say my reluctant " Adieu " 
to my readers, I want to repeat the plea of my 
preface. The subject of colour-printing and its 
connection with stipple-engraving needed for its 
proper elucidation an historian with a critical 
mind ; and it has fallen into the hands of a mere 
collector with a taste for romance. Thus it is 
that certain stories have been told at too great 
length, certain facts, dates, and details have been 
dismissed with too little comment. I am fully 
conscious of all the shortcomings of the book, 
my severest critic cannot be more so. 

But in mitigation of judgment I want to plead 
that, ever since I have been a collector, I have 
been waiting for that historian to arise ; and he 
has not arisen. I have been waiting for that 
authoritative dictum ; and no word has been 



spoken. So, out of the fullness of my desul- 
tory portfolios, my pen has written. I took 
up that pen with a great reluctance, but I lay 
it down with a far greater regret. In the 
years it has taken me to write the book, I have 
learnt more than I can hope to teach. Not, 
perhaps, about colour-printing, and stipple - 
engravings, but about the large generosity of 
my fellow men and women, the collectors who 
have been eager to help me with the loan of 
valuable prints, the dealers who have placed 
their experience and their expert knowledge at 
my command. It was the loyal and untiring 
assistance from my many friends that gave me 
the encouragement with which to start the 
work, and the confidence with which to finish 
it. It is no affectation of modesty to doubt 
my worthiness of such support. 

289 u 


Adam, T., 283 

Agar, John Samuel, 249 

Austin, William, 189 

Baillie, (Capt.) William, 250 

Baldrey, John, 283 

Bartoli, 195 

Bartolini, 207 

Bartolinii, 238 

Bartolotti, 240 

Bartoiozzi, Francesco, ix, xii, 23, 64, 
92, no, 119, 124-128, 135, 137-146, 
157-168, 174, 181, 189, 191, 204, 
205, 210, 211, 2i8, 224-226, 249- 
256, 264, 267, 273, 274, 275, 276, 

Bartoiozzi, Gaetano, 158, 161 

Benedetti, Michele, 161, 250, 251 

Bettelini, Pietro, 251 

Birch, William, 283 

Blake, William, 216, 252, 257 

Bond, William, 212, 252, 253 

Bonnet, Louis Martin, 22, 23, 113 

Bovi, Mariano, 232, 249, 253 

Brown, Mather, ix 

Burke, Thomas, xii, 169-174, 195, 226 

Campagnola, Giulio, 3, 12-22, 60 

Cardon, Antoine, 254 

Checsman, Thomas, 174, 175, 249, 259 

Clarke, John, 283 

Collyer, Joseph, xii, 175-184 

Condi, John, 185, 186 

Cooper, Robert, 283 

Coui, 272 

Debucourt, Philibert Louis, 97, 114 
Delatre, Jean Marie, 232, 255 
Dcmarteau, Gilles, 22, 113, 267 
Dickinson, William, 154, 173, 187-190, 
200, 205, 212, 240, 241, 262 

Dumee, E 


, 256 


Earlom, Richard, 257 
Eginton, John, 257 

Facius, George Sigismund, 258-259 

Facius, Johann Gottlieb, 258 

Fogg, A., 283 

Francois, Jean Charles, 22, ni, H2, 

113, 120 
Freeman, Samuel, 259 

Gaugain, Thomas, xii, 190-195 
Gaugain, Peter, 192 
Gillray, James, ix, 183, 236 
Giuseppe dall' Aqua, 207 
Graham, G., 260 
Grozer, Joseph, 260 

Haward, Francis, 261 
Hellyer, Thomas, 193 
Hogg, James, 195-197 

Jenkins, D., 283 

Jones, John, xii, 198-204, 262 

Josi, C, 261 

Keating, G., 262 
Kirk, T., 255 

Knight, Charles, 154, i8i, 188, 204- 

Legoux, Louis, 283 

Leoni, Ottavio, 3, 22, 23 

Levilly, J. P., 226, 257 

Lewis, Frederick Christian, 22, 263 

Lutma, Jan, 1 1 1 

Macklin, Thomas, 170 
Maile, G., 252 



Marcuard, Robert Samuel, 209-211 
Martin, 283 

Meadows, Robert Mitchell, 263-264,278 
Meyer, Henry, 264 
Michel, Jean Baptiste, 284 
Minasi, James Anthony, 119, 127, 146, 
161, 253, 264-265 

Nugent, Thomas, 284 

Nutter, William, 206, 21 1-2 15, 266, 


Ogborne, John, 213, 265-266, 278 
Ogborne, Mary, 265, 267 
Orme, D., 284 

Pariset, D. P., 267-268 
Paye, R. M., 268-269 
Phillips, Samuel, 269 
Picot, Victor Marie, 269-270 
Pollard, Robert, 270-271 
Pond, Arthur, 71, 98, 112 
Prattent, T., 284 

Reading, Burnet, 271 

Rowlandson, Thomas, ix, 183 

Ryder, Thomas, 271-272 

Ryland, William Wynne, xii, 99, 110, 

112-136, 144, 157, 161, 190, 255, 

267, 269, 278 

Sailliar, Louis, 284 
Schiavonetti, Luigi, 21 5-2 18, 269 
Schiavonetti, Niccolo, 215 
ScorodoomofF, Gabriel, 272-273 

Scott, Edmund, 273-274 

Sedgwick, W., 284 

Sherwin, John Keyse, 186, 274-275 

Simon, Pierre, 275-276 

Sloane, Michael, 217 

Smith, Anker, 276 

Smith, Benjamin, 276-277 

Smith, John Raphael, xiv, 195, 205, 

209, 212, 219-222, 226, 236, 245, 

256, 261, 263, 276, 280 
Soiron, F. D., 192, 277-278 
" Speculatie, Johannes." See Teyler 
Spilsbury, John, 284 
Stadler, Joseph Constantine, 263 
Strutt, Joseph, 116, 278-279 

Teyler, Johannes, "Speculatie," 3, 12, 

54, 59-68, loi, 113, 151 
Thew, Robert, 222, 223 
Tomkins, Peltro William, xii, 224-233, 

Turner, Charles, 234-236 

Vendramini, Giovanni, 279-280 
Vincent, F., 284 

Ward, James, 280 

Ward, William, 220, 236-240, 260, 280 

Watson, Caroline, 226, 244, 275, 280- 

Watson, Thomas, 189, 240-244 
White, Charles, 213, 244-245, 266 
Wilkin, Charles, 246-248 
Williams, E,, 284 
Williamson, Thomas, 259 




Abelard and Eloisa surprised by Fulbert 

[Kauffmann — Scorodoomoff), 273 
Abelard and Heloisa. See Mr, and Mrs. 

Abelard offering Hymen to Eloisa {Kauff- 

mann — Ogborne), 266 
Abington, Mrs. {Cosway — Bartoloxzi), 

Abington, Mrs., as " Roxalana " {Rey- 
nolds — Sher^win), 275 
Abra {Kauffmann — Burke), 170 
Active Love {Stoihard — Strutt), 279 
Adelaide {Cheeiman), 174 
Adelaide {^Hamilton — Eginton), 258 
Adelaide {fVheatley — Hogg), 195 
Adelaide and Penrose {Hamilton — Mar- 

cuard), 210 
Adoration {Reni — Benedetti), 251 
Adoration {Beechey — C fVatson), 282 
Affection {Conyers — Tomkim), 227 
Affection and Innocence {Bartolozzi — 

Tomiint), 226 
Affectionate Daughter, The {fVAeatlty — 

Eginton), 258 
Agatha [J. R. Smith — Dumie), 256 
Age of Bliss, The {Rusull— Scott), 274 
Age of Innocence, The {Reynolds — 

Groaer), 260 
Ale-House Door, The {Singleton — Nutter), 

Alexander resigning hii mistress Cam- 
paspe to Apelles {Kauffmann — Burke), 

Alinda {fV. fVard), 238 

A Loisir {y. R. Smith), 220, 238 

Alope. See Lady Hamilton 

Amelia, Princess {La-wrence — Bartoloxizi), 

Amelia, Princess {Ramberg — fV. ff^ard), 

Amyntor and Theodora {Stothard — Tom- 
kins), 227 

An Airing in Hyde Park {Dayes — Gau- 
gain), 192 

Andover, Jane Elizabeth (Coke), Vis- 
countess {Hoppner — JVilkin), 247 

Andromache weeping over the Ashes of 
Hector {Kauffmann — Dickinson), 189 

Andromache. See Mrs. Hartley 

An Evening Walk {J. R. Smith), 220 

Angelica and Medora {TVest — Facius), 

Angelica and Sacriponte {Kauffmann — 
Burke), 171 

Angels' Heads. See Miss F. I. Ker 

Angry (The) Bov and Tired Dog {Mcr- 
land — Graham), 260 

Angry Farmer, The {Morland — Scott), 


Annette and Lubin {J. R. Smith — ff. 
fVard), 239 

Annette and Lubin {E, Crewe — fVhite), 

Apotheosis (The) of Princess Amelia 
{Byam — Minasi), 265 

Ariadne {Cosway — Phillips), 269 

Ariadne abandoned by Theseus {Kauff- 
mann — Facius), 258 

Arthur and Emmcline {Ansell — Tomkir.s), 

Arts (The) and Sciences {Cipriani — Bovi), 

Ashburton, Elizabeth (Baring), Lady 

{Dott/nman — Barlolooi'zi), \(ij 
Astartc and Zadig {Hone — Haiuard), 261 



Attention {Smith — Meadows), 263 
Augusta Sophia, Princess {Ramberg — 

JVard), 238 
Autumn {fV heat ley — Bartolomict), 167 

Bacchante {Bartoloxzi — Cardon), 254 
Bacchante {Dcnvnman — Legoux), 283 
Bacchante. Sec Mrs. Hartley 
Bacchante, A. See Lady Hamilton 
Bacchus {Cosway — Phillips), 269 
"Ball" (C. Turner), 235 
Ballad Monger {fValton — Ogborne), 267 
Ballad Singer, The {Singleton — Eginton), 

Ballad Singers {Crewe — White), 244 
Banks, (Sir) Joseph {Russell — Colly er), 177 
Banks, Lady {Russell — Colly er), 177 
Barker, Miss {Cosrway — Bovi), 254 
Bartolozzi, Francesco {Reynolds — Mar- 

cuard), 211 
Bateman, Mrs. {Guttenhrunn — Bovi), 254 
Bathers Surprised, The {Bartoloxzi — 

Marcuard), 210 
Bathurst, Georgina, Countess {Lawrence 

— Bartolo-zzi), 167 
Bayham, Lady {Reynolds — Schiazmnetti), 

Beatrice {fVestall — Cheesman), 175 
Beatrice {Harding — Marcuard), 210 
Beauchamp, Lady {Reynolds — Nutter), 

Beauclerk, (Miss) Elizabeth, as " Una " 

{Reynolds — T. Watson), 243 
Beauclerk, Topham, xvi 
Beauty directed by Prudence, rejects with 

scorn the Solicitations of Folly {Kauff- 

mann — Delatre), 255 
Beauty governed by Prudence, crowned 

by Virtuous Love {Kauffmann — Pol- 
lard), 271 
Beauty, Love, and Pleasure {Anon^, 283 
Beckford (Mr.) Horace (Lord Rivers) 

[Cosnvay — Condi), 187 
Belemire, The Count de {Rigaud — 

ffogg)^ 195 

Belissa {J. R. Smith), 220 

Benevolent Lady, The {Morland — 
Dumie), 256 

Betty, Master, xvi 

Billiards {Bunbury — Dickinson), 188 

Billington, lAn.{De Koster — Burke), 171 

Billington, Mrs., as " St. Cecilia " {Rey- 
nolds — Cardon), 254 

Bingham, Miss {Reynolds — Bartoloxzi), 

Biography {Crewe — White), 244 

Bird Catcher, The {Barney — Gaugain), 

Birth of American Liberty {Harding — 

Ogborne), 267 
Birth of Otway, The {Westall—Phillifs), 

Birth of Shakespeare, The {Kauffmann — 

Bartolozzt), 167 
Birth of Shakespeare, The {Westall — 

Phillips), 269 
Birth of the Thames {Cosway — Tomkins), 

Birthday (A) Present to Old Nurse {Bigg 

— Gaugain), 194 
Black, Brown, and Fair {J. R. Smith), 

Blackberry Gatherer, The {Hamilton — 

Fogg), 283 
Bligh, Mrs. {Cosway — Conde), 1 87 
Blind Man's BufF {Hamilton — Knight), 

Blind Man's Buff {Kauffmann — Tomkins), 

Bloomfield, Miss {Buck — Cheesman), 174 
Bouverie, Mrs. {Cosway — Cond/), 187 
Bover, Miss {Hoppner — C. Watson), 282 
Bowles, Miss {Reynolds — Turner), 235 
Boy mending Net {Westall — Gaugain), 

Boy of Glamorganshire, A {Westall — 

Ryder), 272 
Boyd, Lucy {Downman — Tomkins), 227 
Boys robbing an Orchard {Morland — 

Scott), 274 
Breaking up {Hamilton — Nutter), 213 
British Plenty {Singleton — Knight), 206 
Brooke, Mrs. {Read — Bo^i), 254 
Brotherly Affection {Kauffmann — Sedg- 

•wici), 284 
Bryam, Mrs., and her Children {Shelley — 

Nutter), 213 
Buckingham, George Villiers, Duke of 

{f^an Dyck—Baillie), 250 
Buffet the Bear {Stothard — Knight), 206 
Bulkeley, Elizabeth Harriet (Warren), 

Viscountess {Cosivay — Bartolozzi), 167 
Burghersh, John, Lord {Reynolds — Barto- 
lozzi), 167 
Burke, Edmund {Reynolds — Benedetti), 


Cagliostro {Bartolozzi — Marcuard), 210 

Cakes {Artaud — Gaugain), 194 

Calais — The Snuff Box {Kauffmann — 

Delatre), 256 
Calisto {Stothard — Blake), 252 



Camilla Fainting {Singleton — Keating), 

Camilla Recovering {Singleton — Keating), 

Camp Scene, A {Bunbury — fVhite), 245 
Campbell, Lady Charlotte {Hoppner — 

JVilkin), 247 
Captive, The {JVright— Ryder), 272 
Cargill, Mrs., as " Clara " {Peters — 

Picot), 270 
Caroline, Princess of Wales {Cosway — 

Schiavonettt), 216 
Caroline, Princess of Wales, with the 

infant Princess Charlotte {Russell — 

Colly er), 176 
Caroline and Lindorf {Stothard — Ogborne), 

Caroline and Walstein {Stothard — 

Strutt), 279 
Castle in Danger, The {Hamilton — 

Gaugain), 194 
Catalani, Madame {Pope — Cardan), 254 
Catalani, Madame {Buck — Freeman), 259 
Catherine of France presented to Henry 

V. of England at the Treaty of Troyes 

{Stothard — Cordon), 254 
Cawdor, Caroline (Howard), Lady {Ed- 
ridge — Schiavonetti), 216 
Cecilia {Hoppner — Baldrey), 283 
Cecilia {Stothard — Ogborne), 267 
Cecilia overheard by Young Delville 

{Stothard — Nutter), 213 
Celadon and Celia {fVheatley — Simon), 

Celestina {Stothard — Delatre), 255 
Chambers, Sir William {Falconet — 

Pari set), 268 
Chanters, The {Peters — y. R. Smith), 

Charlotte, Princess of Wales (C. fVatson), 

Charlotte and Werther {Ryley — Ryder), 

Charlotte and Werther {Bunbury — 

tVhite), 245 
Charlotte at the Tomb of Werther 

{Saunders — Marcuard), 210 
Charlotte at the Tomb of Werther {B. 

Reading), 271 
Charlotte Augusta, Princess {Romberg — 

fy. fVard), 238 
Chauncey, Charles, M.D. {Cotes — C. 

fVatson), 282 
Cherry Girl, The {Crewe— IVhite), 244 
Child First Going Alone, The {Singleton 

— Bentdetti), 251 

Child Restored, The {Singleton — 

Meadows), 264 
Childhood {Hoare — Gaugain), 193 
Childish Impatience {Cosway — Gaugain), 

Children feeding Chickens {Russell — 

Tomkins), 226 
Children feeding Goats {Morland — 

Tomkins), 226 
Children in the Wood {Stothard — Collyer), 

Children in the Wood, The {Tomkins — 

Delatre), 256 
Children in the Wood, The {Stothard — 

Scott), 274 
Children playing with a Mouse {Hamilton 

— Delatre), 256 
Children relieving a Beggar Boy 

(Children of Sir Francis Ford) 

{Beechey — fFilkin), 247 
Children with Bird {Hamilton — 

Marcuard), 210 
Children with Mouse Trap {Hamilton — 

Marcuard), 210 
Child's Dressing, The {Singleton — 

BeneJetti), 251 
Choice, The (Af. fP'ard), 238 
Chop House, The {Bunbury — Dickinson), 

Christ's Hospital {Cristall — Vincent), 284 
Chryseis restored to her Father {Cipriani 

— BartoloQszi), 168 
Cipriani, Giovanni Baptista [Rigaud — 

Ear lorn), 257 
Clara. See Mrs. Cargill 
Clarence, William, Duke of {Cosway — 

Sailliar), 284 
Clarke, Mrs., xvi 
Cleopatra throwing herself at the feet of 

Augustus {Kauffmann — Burke), 1 70 
Cockburn (Lady) and her Children, 

" Cornelia and her Children " {Reynolds 

—fVilkin), 246 
Cockerell, Harriet (Rushout), Lady, as 

a Lady in the character of a Gipsy 

{Costvay — Agar), 250 
Collina. See Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick 
Comedy {Cipriani — Vendramini), 2 80 
Comic and Tragic Muse {Kauffmann — 

Delatre), 256 
Comic Readings {Bcyne — Knight), 207 
Coming from School {Stothard — Knight), 

Conjugal Affection {Smirke — The^v), 222 
Conjugal Love {Kauffmann — Burke), 17 I 
Constancy {Morland— JV. fVard), 239 



Contemplating the Picture (y. R. Smith), 


Contemplation (Crewe — fVhite), 244 
Contemplation. See Mrs. Robinson 
Contemplation. See The Honourable 

Mrs. Stanhope 
Content {Cheetman), 174 
Contentment {Cipriani — Bartolozzi), 165 
Contentment and Innocence [Kauffmarm 

— Burke), 170 
Cora. See Mrs. Young 
Coram, Captain {Hogarth — Nutter), 212 
Cordelia {Kauffmann — Bartolozxt), 167 
Cornelia. See Mrs. Ruspina 
Cornelia and her Children. See Lady 

Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi {Kauff"- 

mann — Bartolozzi), 167 
Cosway, Louisa Paolina Angelica {Cosway 

— Car don), 254 
Cosway, Maria Cecilia Louisa {Cosway — 

Sch'tavonettt), 2 16 
Cosway, Maria Cecilia Louisa, as "A 

Milkmaid " {Cosway — Hogg), 195 
Cosway, Mr. and Mrs., as " Abelard and 

Heloisa " {Cosway — Tkew), 222 
Cosway, Richard {Cosway — Bovi), 254 
Cotes, Francis {Falconet — Pariset), 268 
Cottage Breakfast {Bigg — Ogborne), 266 
Cottage Children {Russell — fVhite), 245 
Cottage Girl {Braine — Scott), 274 
Cottage Girl Gathering Nuts {Bigg — 

Tomiins), 226 
Cottage Girl shelling Peas {Bigg — 

Tomkins), 226 
Cottage Supper {Bigg — Ogborne), 266 
Cottager, The {A Lady — Tomkins), 227 
Country Girl, The. See Miss Horneck. 

See Mrs. Jordan 
Country Scnoolmistress, The {Saunders 

Duterreau), z^j 
Courtship {Milbourne — Gaugain), 193 
Cowper, William {Laxurence — Blake), 

Cowslip Gatherer, The {Hamilton — 

Fogg), 283 
Credulous (The) Lady and Astrologer 

{y. R. Smith — Simon), 276 
Crewe, Mrs. {Gardner — T. IFatson), 241 
Cries of London, 157, 255, 280 
Crouch, Mrs., xvi 

Crouch, Mrs. {Romney — Bartoloaxsi), 167 
Cumberland, Mrs. Elizabeth {Lady E. 

Bentinck — Tomkins), 228 
Cupid {Bartolomxi — Burke), 17 1 
Cupid {Reinagle — Burke), iji 

Cupid {Cipriani — Earlom), 257 

Cupid and Aglaie {Kauffmann — Ryland), 

Cupid and Campaspe {Stothard — Strutt), 

Cupid and Cephisa {Kauffmann — Burke), 

Cupid and Ganymede {Kauffmann — 
Burke), 170 

Cupid binding Aglaia {Kauffmann — 
Burke), 170 

Cupid crowning the Arts {Ha%uard), 261 

Cupid Disarmed {Benwell — Knight), 206 

Cupid disarmed by Euphrosine {Kauff- 
mann — Burke), 170 

Cupid making his Bow {Correggio — 
Bartolozzi), 167 

Cupid Sleeping {fVestall — Nutter), 213 

Cupid unveiling Venus {Cosway — Car- 
don), 255 

Cupid's Pastime {Kauffmann — Facius), 

Cupid's Revenge {Benvtell — Knight), 107 

Cymon and Iphigenia {Reynolds — 
Howard), 261 

Cymon and Iphigenia {Kauffmann — 
Ryland), 136 

Darner, Mrs. {Cosway — Schia-vonetti), 216 
Damon and Delia {Kauffmann — Barto- 

loxzi), 167 
Damon and Musidora {Kauffmann — 

Bartoloxzi), 167 
Damon and Musidora {Kauffmann — 

Knight), 207 
Damon and Phoebe {Harding — Delatre), 

Danae {Titian — Facius), 259 
Dancing Dogs {Morland — Gaugain), 192 
Delia in the Country {Morland — j. R. 

Smith), 220 
Delia in Town {Morland— J. R. Smith), 

D'Eon, Chevali^re, as Minerva {Conde'), 

Deserted Village, The {Shenvin), 275 
Devonshire, Georgiana, Duchess of, xvi 
Devonshire, Georgiana, Duchess of 

{Do^vnman — Bartolozzi), 165 
Devonshire, Georgiana, Duchess of 

{Nixon — Bartolozzi), 168 
Devonshire, Georgiana, Duchess of {T. 

fVatson), 241 
Devonshire (The Duchess of) and Lady 

Duncannon {Kauffmann — Dickinson), 

173. ^H 



Diana (Hamilton — Facius), 259 

Diana and Nymphs Bathing [Pernotln — 

Bartolojixi), 165 
Diana and her Nymphs {Gaugain), 1 94 
Diana and her Nymphs Bathing \Zucca- 

relit — Picot), 270 
Dido invoking the Gods before mount- 
ing the Funeral Pile (Kauffmann — 

Delatre), 255 
Diligence and Dissipation {ff^estall — 

Gaugain), 193 
Disappointment (Paye), 269 
Discipline (Prattent), 284 
Discovery, The {Morland — Dumie), 256 
Donegal (Marchioness of) Mrs. and Miss 

May and the Earl of Belfast {Mas- 

querier — Cordon), 254 
Dormant Love {Kauffmann — Oghorne), 

Dormio Innocuus {Kauffmann — Ryland), 

Dove, The {Bennett — JVhite), 245 
Drummond (Mrs.) and her Children 

{Shelley— C. JVatson), 282 
Du Barry, Madame {Convoy — Conde),iSj 
Duchess of C . . . delivered from the 

Cavern {Rigoud — Bettelini), 252 
DufF, Mrs., xvi 

Duff, Mrs. {Convoy — -^gar), 249 
Duncan, Miss, as " Letitia Harding" 

{Barber — Cordon), 255 
Duncannon, Lady. See Duchess of 

Dunce Disgraced, The {Stothard — 

Knight), 206 
Duncombc, Lady Charlotte {Hoppner — 

H^ilkin), 247 
Dundas, Lady Jane {Hopfmer — Barto- 

lo^au), 168 
Dungarvan (Edmund Boyle, Viscount) 

and the Honourable Courtenay and 

Charles Boyle {Cotv>ay — yones), 200 
Duty {Conyers — Tomkins), 227 
Duty of a Mother, The {H^ett—Scoro- 

doomoff), 273 

Edwin, Mr. See "Lingo and Cowslip " 
Edwin and Angelina (Fi<»jf»i<w — Mar- 

cuard), 210 
Eleanora and Edward I. {Kauffmann — 

Ryland), 136 
Elfrida'i Vow {Stothard — Marcuard), 210 
Elizabeth, Princess {Romberg — ff^. 

fTord), 238 
Elysium, or Cupid Punished {Stothard — 

Ogborne), 267 

Emma. See Lady Hamilton 

English Dressing-Room, The {Ansel! — 

Tomkins), 226 
English Fireside, The {Ansell— Tomkins), 

English Fruit -Girl, An {Northcote — 

Gaugain), 194 
English Milk -Girl, An {Northcote — 

Gaugain), 194 
Enraptured Youth, The {Peters — JVhite), 

Epponina {West — fVilkin), 247 
Erminia {Cheesman), 175 
Erminia {Kauffmann — Hogg), 195 
Erminia {Rcmney — jfones), 199 
Ethelinda and the Knight {Stothard — 

Meadcnvs), 263 
Ethelinda restored to her Father {Sto- 
thard — Meadows), 263 
'EMX'<jXK.t. {Kauffmann — Bortolouszi), 167 
Euston, Charlotte Maria (Waldegrave), 

Countess of {Hoppner — ff^ilkin), 247 
Evelina {Hcppner — Baldrey), 283 
Evening {Hamilton — Tomkins), 231 
Evening Amusement {fVatteau — Blake), 

Expiation of Orestes, The {fVestall — 

Bond), 253 

Fair Emmeline {Stothard — Simon), 276 
Fair Seducer, The {Morland — Dumie),Z 56 
Fairings, The {fVheatley — Eginton), 258 
Family (The) of the Duke of Marl- 
borough {Shelley — Bartolo^xi), 167 
Fancy {Artaud — Duterreau), 257 
Farm- Yard, The {Singleton — Nutter),iii 
Farmer's Door, The {Morland — Duter- 
reau), 257 
Farmer's (The) Visit to his Daughter 
in Town {Morland — Bond), 212, 

Farren, Elizabeth (Countess of Derby) 

{Dovmman — Collyer), 176, 180 
Farren, Elizabeth (Countess of Derby) 

{Lawrence — Knight), 167, 181, 205 
Farren (Elizabeth) and Thomas King 

{Dcnvnman — yones), 200 
Father's Delight {Derby — Meyer), 264 
Favourite Rabbit, The {Russell — Knight), 

Feeding Chickens {Stothard — Knight), 

Felina. See Offie Palmer 
Fencing Match, The {Rcbineau — Picci), 

Ferdinand IV. of Italy {Minasi), 265 



Ferncutter's Child, A {H^estall — 

Meadows), 263 
Fidelity {Gardner — Pf^hite), 245 
Fifth of November, The {Stotkard — 

Knight), 206 
Filial Piety [Wheatley—Egtnton), 258 
Filial Piety {Russell— C. IVatson), 282 
Finery {Artaud — Gaugain), 194 
First Bite, The {Stothard— Nutter), 213 
First Pledge of Love, The {Morland— 

fFard), 237 
Fitzherbert, Mrs. {Russell — Collyer), ij6 
Fitzherbert, Mrs. {Cosway — Conde), 186 
Fitzpatrick, Lady Anne, " Sylvia " {Rey- 
nolds — yones), 199 
Fitzpatrick, Lady Gertrude, " CoUina " 

{Reynolds — yones), 199 
Fitzpatrick, Lady Gertrude (C. fTtliin), 

Five Senses, The {Sciia-vcnetti — 

Phillips), 269 
Flirtilla {J. R. Smith), 220 
Flora {Stothard — Knight), 207 
Flora {Kauffmann — Tomkins), 227 
Flora and Ceres {Cosnvay — Cardon), 254 
Flora and Zephyr {Hamilton — Hatvard), 

Flower Girl, The {Kauffmann — Spils- 

bury), 284 
Flower Girl, The {Princess Elizabeth— 

Tomkins), 226 
Fonrose and Adelaide {Hamilton — Mar- 

cuard), 210 
YortituAt {Kauffmann — Scorodoomoff), 273 
Fortitude of Sir T. More {Hamilton — 

Meadvws), 263 
Fortune {Cipriani — Bartolozzi), 168 
Fortune Tellers, The. See Lord Henry 

and Lady Charlotte Spencer 
Foster, Lady Elizabeth (Duchess of 

Devonshire) {Reynolds — Bartolo%%i), 

»S9. 165 
Foster, Lady Elizabeth (Duchess of 

Devonshire) {Downman — C. Watson), 

Four Seasons, The {Buck — Freeman), 

Four Virtues, The {Kauffmann — Scoro- 
doomiff), 273 

French Dressing-Room, The {Ansell — 
Tomkins), 226 

French Fireside, The {Ansell — Tomkins), 

Friar Philip's Geese {Bunbury — T. Wat- 
son), 241 

Friendship {Van Assen — Adam), 283 

Friendship {Cipriani — Bartolozzi), 165 
Friendship {Kauffmann — Marcuard), 210 
Friendship (Cosway — Pollard), 271 

Gaiety {Westall— Phillips), 269 

Gardens of Carlton House with Nea- 
politan Ballad Singers {Bunbury — 
Knight), 1 88, 205 

Garrick, David {Falconet — Reading), 27 I 

Gathering Fruit {Morland — Meadows), 

Gathering Wood {Morland — Meadows), 

Genius of Modesty preventing Love un- 
veiling Beauty {Cipriani — Ryder and 
Cosse), 272 

Genius with Sickle and Sheaf {Cipriani 
— Delatre), 256 

George, Prince of Wales {Cosway — 
Burke), 171 

George, Prince of Wales {Russell — 
Collyer), 176 

George, Prince of Wales {Cosway — 
Sailliar), 284 

George, Prince of Wales {Scott), 273 

George IIL {B. Smith), 277 

Ghost, The (" L'Apparition ") {Westall 
— Schiavonetti), 218 

Gibbs, Mrs. {Cheesman), 175 

Gipsies stealing a Child {Singleton — 
Meadovfs), 264 

Girl gathering Mushrooms, A {Westall 
— Meadoivs), 263 

Girl of Carmarthenshire, A {Westall — 
Ryder), 272 

Girl of Modena, The {Bunbury — Tom- 
kins), 227 

Girl of the Forest of Snowdon, The {Bun- 
bury — Tomkins), 227 

Girl returning from Milking, A {Wes- 
tall — Gaugain), 193 

Glass of Pleasure, The {Orme), 284 

Gloucester, William Frederick, Duke of 
{Romney — Jones), 199 

Goddess of Wisdom, The {Shelley— C. 
Watson), 282 

Golden Age, The {West—Facius), 258 

Good Mother reading a Story, The 
{Crewe — White), 244 

Gordon (Miss), Frances Isabella Ker 
(Angels' Heads) {Reynolds — Simon), 

Grace in all their Steps {Locke — Bovt), 

Grantham (Lord) and his Brothers {Rey- 
nolds — Cheesman), 174 



Grecian Daughter, The. See Mrs. 

Grey, Sir Charles (Lawrence — Collyer), 

Grey (Lady Elizabeth) and Edward IV. 

{Kauffmann — Ryland), 136 
Griselda (Kauffmann — Barto/ozzi), 167 
Guardian Angel, The (Fuseli — Benedetti), 

Guardian Angel, The (Conway — Ogborne), 

Guardian Angel, The (Cosway — Phillifs), 

Guardian Angels (Bartolozzi — Clarke), 

Guinea Pigs (Morland — Gaugain), 192 
Gunn, Martha {Russell — Nutter), 213 
Gwatkin (Miss)Theophila,"Simplicity " 

(Reynolds — Bartolo-zzi), 167 
Gwynne, Eleanor (Lely — Ogborne), 267 

Halsewell, Wreck of the (Stothard — 

Scott), 273 
Hamilton, Lady (Romney — C. IVatson), 

Hamilton, Lady, ''Emma" (Romney — 

yones), xvi, 200 
Hamilton, Lady, as " A Bacchante " 

(Romney — Knight), 206 
Hamilton, Lady, as " Alope " (Romney — 

Earlom), 257 
Hamilton, Lady, as " Sensibility " 

(Romnty — Earlom), 257 
Hamilton, Lady, as "The Spinster" 

(Romney — Cheesman), 174 
Hammond's Love ^\cpti (Kauffmann — 

Delatre), 256 
Hare, Francis George, " Infancy " 

(Reynolds — Thew), 223 
Harrington (Jane, Countess of), with her 

Children (Reynolds — Bjrtclo-zzi), 165 
Harris, Sir James (Reynolds — C. IVatson), 

Harrop, Miss (Kauffmann — Delatre), 256 
Hartley, Mrs., as " Andromache " 

[Egremont — Slierzvin), 275 
Hartley (Mrs.) and Child, as " Bacchante " 

(Reynolds — Nutter), 213 
Hayman, Francis (Falconet — Reading), 

Health and Sickness (Bigg — Gaugain), 

Heathcote, Katherine Sophia (Manners), 

Lady (Ccnvay — Agar), 250 
Heathfield, George Augustus Eliot, 

Lord (Reynolds — Earlom), 257 

Hebe (Kauffmann — Bartolozzi), 167 

Hebe (Cos'way — Dume'e), 256 

Hebe (Hamilton — Eginton), 258 

Hebe (Hamilton — Facius), 259 

Hebe (Hamilton — Howard), 261 

Hebe (Bartolozzi — Marcuard), 210 

Hebe. See Mrs. Jerningham 

Hector and Andromache (Cipriani — 

Bartolozzi), 168 
Henderson, John (Hogg), 195 
Henry and Emma (Kauffmann — Burke), 

Henry and Emma (Stothard — Marcuard), 

Hesitation (fVard), 238 
He Sleeps (Tomkins), 226 
Hilligsberg, Mdlle. (Janvry — Conde), 

History (Ogborne), 267 
Hoare, Master (Reynolds — JVilkin), 247 
Hobbinella and Luberkin (Northcote — 

y.R. Smith), 221 
Hobbinol and Ganderetta (Gainsborough 

— Tomkins), 226 
Hobby-Horse, The (Cosway — Conde), 

Hogarth (William) and his Dog 

(Hogarth — B. Smith), 277 
Hop Girl, The (Princess Elizabeth — 

Tomkins), 226 
Hope. See Lady Leicester 
Hope nursing Love (Reynolds — Barto- 
lozzi), 167 
Horneck, Miss, " The Country Girl " 

(Peters — Dickinson), 189 
Hours, The (Shelley— Nutter), 2 1 3 
Hours crowning Virtuous Love, The 

(Cosvjay — Ryder), 272 
Howard, Lady Catherine (fVilkin), 247 
How Smooth, Brother, Feel Again 

(Hamilton — Gaugain), 194 
How sweet's the Love that meets Re- 
turn (Morland — Gaugain), 1 93 
Hudibrai and Sidrophel (Hogarth — 

Gaugain), 190 
Humphrey, Ozias, R.A. (Falconet — 

Reading), 271 
Humphrey, Orias (Romney — C. Ifatscn), 

Humphreys, Mrs. (Buck — Cheesman), 174 
Huirtly, Elizabeth Henrietta (Conyng- 

ham). Marchioness of (Barmo — 

Maile), 252 

Idle Laundress, The (Morland— Blake), 



Idleness [Murland — Knight), 207 
Illustrations from Horace {Kauffmann 

— RylanJ), 136 
Imprudence (The) of Candaules, King 

of Lydia {Le Sutur — Strutt), 279 
Inattention {J. R. Smith — Meadows), 

Industrious Cottagers, The {Morland — 

Blake), 252 
Industry attended by Patience and 

assisted by Perseverance, crowned by 

Honour, and rewarded with Plenty 

{Kauffmann — Facius), 258 
Infancy (Cosway — fVhite), 245 
Infancy. See Francis George Hare 
Infant Academy {Reynolds — Howard), 

Infant (The) Shakespeare attended by 

Nature and the Passions {Romney — B. 

Smith), 277 
Innocence {Kauffmann — Marcuard), 210 
Innocence {Cosway — Phillips), 269 
Innocence and Fidelity {Bettelint), 252 
Innocent Mischief {fVestall — Josi), 262 
Innocent Play (Tomiins), 227 
Innocent Revenge {fVestall — Josi), 

Innocent Stratagem {Stothard — Strutt), 

Instruction {Crewe — White), 244 
Irish Peasants {JVestall — Cordon), 255 
Isabella. See Miss O'Neill 
Italian Fruit Girl, An {Peters — Mar- 
cuard), 210 

Jackson, Mrs. {Cosway — Conde), 187 
January and May {Gaugain), 190, 191 
Jenny and Roger {Morland — Gaugain), 

Jemingham, Mrs., as Hebe {Hoppner — 

Meyer), 264 
Jones, Sir William, as " The Shepherd 

Boy" {Reynolds — Agar), 249 
Jordan, Mrs., as " The Country Girl " 

{Romr.ey — Oghorne), 267 
Judgment of Paris, The {Kauffmann — 

Ryland), 136 
Julia {Crewe — White), 244 
Juno {Hamilton — Harvard), 261 
Juno Cestum {Kauffmann — Ryland), 136 
Jupiter and Calisto {Kauffmann — Burke), 

Just Breech'd {Stothard — Nutter), 213 
Justice {Kauffmann — Scorodoomoff), 273 
Juvenile Culprits Detected {Page — 

Meadows), 263 

Kemble, Miss (Mrs. Twiss) {Dotvnman 
— Jones), 200, 202 

Kemble (Mr.) and Mrs. Siddons as 
" Tancred and Sigismunda " {Shirriff 
— C. Watson), 282 

Keppel, Augustus Kcppel, Viscount 
{Cerrachi — Marcuard), 210 

Kinnoull, Robert Auriol Hay Drum- 
mond,Earl oi {Shelley— C. Watson),z%z 

Kinnoull, Sarah (Harley), Countess of 
{Shelley— C. Watson), 282 

Kite Compleated, The {Barney — Gau- 
gain), 193 

Kosciuszko, Thaddeus {Cosway — Car- 
don), 254 

Labourer's Luncheon, The {Morland — 

Josi), 262 
Lady (A) and Child {Crewe— White), 244 
Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament {Mrs. 

Jockell—Conde), 187 
Lady (A) in the character of a Gipsy. 

See Cockerell 
Lady (A) in the character of a Milkmaid 

{Cosrivay — Agar), 250 
Lady (A) with a young Girl {Cosway — 

Minasi), 265 
Lady (A) with her Children in the 

Garden {Gaugain), 193 
Lady's Last Stake, The {Hogarth — 

Cheesman), 175 
Lais {Cipriani — Bartolozzi), 168 
Landlord's Family, The {Stothard — 

Knight), 207 
Langham, Henrietta Elizabeth Frederica 

(Vane), Lady {Hoppner — Wilkin), 247 
L' Apparition. See The Ghost 
Lass of Levingstone, The {Morland — 

Gaugain), 193 
Last Supper, The {West — Ryder), 272 
Laudit Amabiliter {Kauffmann — Ryland), 

Laughing Girl, The {Reynolds — Bond), 

Lavinia {Shelley — Smith), 220 
Lavinia and her Mother {Bigg — Reading), 

Lavinia and her Mother {Ramierg — 

Tomkins), 22 J 
Lavinia and her Mother {Crewe — White), 

Lecture on Gadding {jf. R. Smith — 

Nutter), 212 
Leda {Cosviay — Condi), 187 
Leicester, Lady, as " Hope " {Lawrence 

— Meyer), 264 



Letitia {MorUtnd — Bartolozzt), 167 
Liberal Fair, The {Kauffmann — Tom/tins), 

Libertine Reclaimed, The {Harding — 

Bartolozxi), 167 
Lindamira {fydliams), 284 
Lingo and Cowilip (Mr, Edwin and 

Mrs. Wells) {Singleton — Scott), 274 
Linley, Miss Maria {fVatall — Ryder), 

Linley, Miss. See Mrs. Sheridan 
Linleys, The, xvi 
Little Busybody, The {Buck — Freeman), 

Little Gipsy, The {Weitcdl—Joit), 262 
Lcetitia {Morland — y. R. SmitA), 220 
Long Minuet at Bath, The {Bunbury — 

Dickinson), 188 
Louisa {Morland — Gaugain), 193 
Louisa {Nixon — Tomkini), 227 
Louisa {JV. fTardS, 238 
Louisa Mildmay (iV. fVard), 238 
Louisa, reigning Landgravine of Hesse- 
Darmstadt {Schroeder — Burke), 17 1 
Louisa, the celebrated Maid of the Hay- 
stack {Palmer — Tomkins), 227 
Love {Cosivay — Pollard), 271 
Love {Peters — JVhite), 244 
Love and Beauty {Cheesman), 174 
Love Caressed {Cifriani — f^endramini), 

Love Enamoured {Hoppner — Tomkins), 

Love Healed {Shelley — Cooper), 283 
Love Letter, The {R. fVest — Dume'e), 

Love Rejected {Cipriani — yendramini), 

Love Repentant {Benwell — G. dall ' 

Aqua), 207 
Love Triumphant {Benwell — G, dall' 

Aqua), 207 
Love Wounded {Shelley — Cooper), 283 
Lovers {Picet), 270 
Lover's Anger, The {Wheatley — Simon), 

Lubin and Rosalie {Beechey — Marcuard), 

Lucy {Hodges — Graham), 260 
Lucy of Leinster {fV. fVard), 238 
Lunardi the Aeronaut, xvi 
Lydia {Peters — Dickinson), 189 

Madonna and Child {Rottenhamer — 

Baillit), 250 
Maid, A {J. R. Smith), 220 

Manners, Catherine Rebecca, Lady {Cos- 
ivay — Conde"), 187 
Manners, Lady Catherine {Reynolds — 

Gaugain), 193 
Manners, Lady Louisa {Reynolds — 

Knight), 206 
Manners, Mrs. Russell {Stoehling — 

Cooper), 283 
Mansfield, William Murray, Earl of 

{Grimaldi — Jones) 199 
Marchande de Cupidon {Bartoloxzi — 

Ogborne), 266 
Marchesi, Signor {Cosway — Schia-venetti), 

Margaret {Dunthorne — Scott), 274 
Margaret of Anjou {Stothard — ff^hite), 


Maria {Russell — Tomkins), 226 

Marian {Bunbtay — Tomkins), 227 

Marianne {Ryland), 136 

Marion and Colin Clout {Conyers — Tom- 
kins), 227 

Marlborough, George, 4th Duke of 
Cosway — Agar), 250 

Marlborough, Duke of. See Family 

Marriage of Cupid and Psyche {Sherivin), 

Marriage of Lucinda and Fernando 

{Stothard — Sherioin), 275 
Mary, Princess {Hoppner — C. fVatson), 

Mask, The. See Ladies Charlotte and 

Anne Spencer 
Masquerade, The {Hamilton — Nutter), 

Match Boy, The {J. R. Smith— Knight), 

Maternal Affection {Cheesman), 174, 

Maternal Affection. See Lady Mel- 
Maternal Instruction {fVest — Scoro- 

doomoff), 273 
Maternal Love. See Mrs. Morgan 
Matrimony {Milbcume — Gaugain), 193 
May Day, or the Happy Lovers {Saunders 

— Delatre), 256 
Meditation {IVestall— Phillips), 269 
Meditation {Sherwin), 275 
Melania. See Mrs. Robinson 
Melbourne, Elizabeth (Milbanke), Vis- 
countess, " Maternal Affection " {Rey- 
nolds — Dickinson), 189 
Merry, Mrs. {Cosivay — Bovi), 254 
Merry, Mrs. {Corway — Cardan), 254 
Merry Story, The {J. R. Smith), 220 



Meyer,Jeremiah {Falconet — Reading)^zj i 
Michal, y Isabella z Lasockich Oginscy 

[Corway — Schiatnnetti), 216 
Milbank, Ralph {Riynoldt — Marcuard), 


Milk Girl, The {Princeu Elixaheth — 
Tomkins), 226 

Milkmaid, A. See Maria Cecilia Louisa 

Minerva. See Chevali^re D'Eon 

Minerva directing the Arrows of Cupid 
{Copway — Condi), 187 

Minstrel, The {OpU — fVard), 239 

Miranda and Ferdinand (Kauffmann — 
Tomkins), 227 

Mirror, The (y. R. Smith), 220, 222 

Mirror (The), Serena and Flirtilla {J. 
R. Smith), 220 

Modern Graces, The {Buniury — Scott), 

Moira, Francis Rawdon Hastings, Earl 
of {Reynolds — Jones), 199 

Montague, George, Duke of {Beechey — 
Colly ei), 176 

Months, The, 157 

Moralist, The [J. R. Smith— Nutter), 212 

Morgan, Mrs., " Maternal Love ' ' {Russell 
— Tomkins), 231 

Morning {Hamilton — Tomkins), 231 

Morning Amusement {fVatteau — Blake), 

Morning Amusement. See Lady Hester 

Morning, or the Reflection {fVard — 
Grosser), 260 

Morning Reflection {Morland — Graham), 

Mother's Care, The {Bartolozzi — Mar- 
cuard), 210 

Mother's Darling, The {Bartolczzi — 
Marcuard), 2IO 

Mother's Fairings (C Turner), 235 

Mother's Pride (Master Jekyll) {Ladder 
— Cardon), 255, 264 

Moulines— The Handkerchief {Kauff- 
mann — Delatre), 256 

Mountain, Mrs. {Buck — Cheesman), 174 

Mountstuart, Lord {Hone — Baillie), 250 

Murder (The) of James I., King of Scot- 
land {Opie — Ryder), 272 

Muscipula {Reynolds — Jones), 199 

M«sic {Domenichino — Benedetti), 251 

Music {Oghorne), 267 

Music has charms to soothe the savage 
breast {Cosway — Bettelint), 252 

Musing Charmer, The {fT. H^ard), 238 

Narcissa {J. R. Smith), 220, 221 
Natural Philosophy {Legoux), 283 
Nature {Hoppner — Knight), 207 
Navigation {Legcux), 283 
Nest of Cupids, A {Aspinall — Schia- 

•vcnetti), 216 
New Sash, The {Russell— Strutt), 279 
New Shoes {Lady Beauclerk — Bovi), 254 
Nice Supper {Lady Beauclerk — Bo-vi), 254 
Night {Hamilton — Delatre), 232 
No Dance, No Supper {Paye), 269 
Noon {Hamilton — Delatre), 232 
Nurs'd Abroad {Stothard — Strutt), 279 
Nurs'd at Home {Stothard — Strutt), 279 
Nymph Asleep {Cipriani — Bettelint), 252 
Nymph feeding Swans, A {Kauffmann — 

Jenkins), 283 
Nymph of Immortality crowning the 

bust of Shakespeare {Cipriani — Barto- 

lozzi), 168 
Nymphs and Satyrs {Cipriani — Bovi), 

Nymphs Bathing {Cheesman), 175 
Nymphs Sporting {Zuccarelli — Picot), 270 

Octavius, Prince {Gainsborough — Chees- 
man), 175 

Octavius, Prince {fVest — Facius), 258 

Of such is the Kingdom of God {Peters 
— Dickinson), 189 

Olim Truncus {Kauffmann — Ryland), 136 

O'Neill, Miss {Cosway — Agar), 250 

O'Neill, Miss (C. Turner), 235 

O'Neill, Miss, as " Isabella " {Boaden — 
Cheesman), 175 

Orford, Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of 
{Falconet — Pariset), 268 

Orgar and Elfrida {Jefferys — Marcuard), 

Venus Regina {Kauffmann — Ryland), 

Paine, James {Falconet — Pariset), 268 

Painting {Osborne), 267 

Palemon and Lavinia {Kauffmann — 

Knight), 207 
Palemon and Lavinia {Stothard — Scott), 

Palemon and Lavinia {Stothard — fVhite), 

Palmer, Offie, " Felina " {Reynolds — 

Collyer), 176 
Pam, Flush, and Loo {Opie — Meyer), 

Parisot, Mademoiselle {Masquerier — C. 

Turner), 235, 236 



Parkyns, Mrs. (Lady RanclifFe) {Hopfner 

—fViltdn), 247 
Parting of Abelard and Eloisa {JCauff- 

mann — Scorodoomoff), 273 
Parting of Achilles and Briseis {Cipriani 

— Barto/ozzi), 168 
Parting (The) of Romeo and Juliet 

[fVest — Scorodoomoff), 273 
Patience and Perseverance (Kauffmann — 

Ryland), 136 
Patty {Bunbury — fVhite), 245 
Peasant's Little Maid, The {Russell — 

Nutter), 213 
Peasant's Repast, The {Morland — jfosi), 

Peasants with Fruit and Flowers [Peters 

—Michel), 284 
Peleus and Thetis {Kauffmann — Tonkins), 

Pelham (Charles Anderson) with his 

Lady and their six Children {Cofway 

—C. fVatson), 282 
Pembroke, Lady {Hogarth — Ryder), 272 
Penelope taking down the Bow of 

Ulysses {Kauffmann — Ryder), 272 
Penelope weeping over the Bow of 

Ulysses {Kauffmann — Delatre), 255 
Perdita {JVestall — Cheestnan), 175 
Perdita. See Mrs. Robinson 
Phcenissa, friend of Sophonisba {Kauff- 
mann — Facius), 258 
Plenty {Cheesman), 175 
Polite Courtship {Dayes — Thew), 223 
Poor Soldier, The {yinsell — Tomkins), 

Posthumus, Consul of Rome {Kauffmann 

— Delatre), 255 
Power of Innocence, The {S tot hard — 

Strutt), 279 
Power of Love, The {Kauffmann — Og- 

borne), 266 
Power of Love, The {Pellegrini— ^en- 

dramini), 280 
Power of Music, The {Kauffmann — 

Powlett, Lady Catherine {Cosway — 
fThite), 245 

Prelude to Matrimony, The {Harding — 
Bartolozzi), 167 

Primrose Girl, The {y. R. Smith- 
Knight), 209 

Private Amusement {Ramberg — fV. 
ff^ard), 238 

Promenade in St James's Park, The 
{Dayes — Soiron), 192, 278 

Prudence {Kauffmann — Sccrodeomoff), 273 

Prudence and Beauty {Kauffmanni — 

Ryder), 272 
Psammetichus in Love with Rhodope 

{Kauffmann — Bartolozzi), 1 67 
Psyche {Beechey—C. fVatton), 282 
Psyche (Hon. Mrs. Paget) {Hopfner — 

Meyer), 264 
Psyche and Zephyr {Hamilton — Howard), 

Puss in Durance {Paye), 269 
Puss in Favour {Morland — Prattent), 

Pyramus {Hoppner — Knight), 206 

Q., Mrs. See Mrs. Quentin 
Quarrel, The {Buck — Freeman), 259 
Queen Margaret with her son the Prince 

{A. Borel — Hogg), 195 
Quentin, Mrs., " Mrs. Q." {Huet-f^ilUers 

— Blake), 252 

Radnor, Countess {Costuay — Bovi), 254 
R^camier, Madame {Cosway — Cardon), 

^54 . . 
Reconciliation, The {Buck — Freeman), 

Reflection {Ramberg — fVard), 238 
Reflections on Werther. See Miss 

Refreshment {Tomkins), 227 
Reverie, The {Reynolds — Cheesman), 174 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua {Falconet — Pariset), 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua {Reynolds — Turner), 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua {Reynolds — C. fVat- 

scn), 282 
Richmond, Mary (Bruce), Duchess of 

{Kauffmann — Ryland), 136 
Richmond, Mary (Bruce), Duchess of 

{DoTvnman — Burke), 1 7 I 
Riddell, (Lieutenant) George James 

{Downman — Bartolo-zzi), 165 
Rinaldo and Armida {Kauffmann — 

Burke), 169, 170, 172-1 J J 
Rinaldo and Armida {Kauffmann — Hogg), 


Rivers, Lord. See Mr. Bcckford 
Robin Goodfellow {Reynolds — Schia- 

•vonetti), 216 
Robinetta. See Hon. Anna Tollemache 
Robinson, Mrs., xvi 
Robinson, Mrs., " Per<lita " {Reynolds — 

Dickinson). 189 
Robinson, Mrs., as " Contemplation " 

{Reynolds— Birch), 283 



Robinson, Mrs., at " Melania " {Conde), 

Robinson, Mrs., as " Venus " {Sierwin), 

186, 275 
Robinson, Mrs. (in large hat) {SAenvin), 

Roderick Random ( Trewingard — Knight), 

Rosalind and Celia {Lawrenson — Tomtins), 

Rosebud, The {fVeitall— Nutter), 213 
Rosina {Stothard — Knight), 207 
Rosina [Dunthorne — Scott), 274 
Roxalana. See Mrs. Abington 
Royal Rose, The {Orme), 284 
Runaway Love (^Stothard — Knight), 207 
Rural Amusement {Morland — y. R. 

Smith), 219 
Rural Contemplation {fVestall — Gaugain), 

Rural Misfortune {^Bigg — Oghorne), 266 
Rural Music {JVettall — Gaugain), 193 
Rushout, Rebecca (Bowles), Lady {Plimer 

— Burke), 170 
Rushout, Rebecca (Bowles), Lady, and 

Daughter [Kauffmann — Burke), 169, 

170, 171, 172, 173 
Ruspina (Mrs.) and Child, " Cornelia " 

{Shelley — Knight), 207 
Rustic Courtship {Dayes — Thew), 223 
Rustic Employment {Morland — y, R. 

Smith), 219, 220 
Rutland, Elizabeth (Howard), Duchess 

of (C. fVilkin), 247 
Rutland, Mary Isabella (Somerset), 

Duchess of {Nixon — Bartolozzt), 168 
Rutland, Mary Isabella (Somerset), 

Duchess of {Peters — fVhite), 245 

Sacrifice to Cupid, A {Cipriani — Barto- 

loTszi), 127, 165 
Sad Story, The {fVestall— Oghorne), 267 
Sailor Boy's Return, The {Bigg — Gau- 

gain), 194 
St. Asaph, Lady Sophia {Reynolds — 

Grozer), 260 
St. Asaph, Lady Charlotte (Percy), Vis- 
countess {Hoppner — C fVilkin), 247 
St. Cecilia {Romney — Keating), 262 
St. Cecilia. See Mrs. Billington 
St. Cecilia. See Mrs. Sheridan 
St. Giles's Beauty, A {Benwell — Barto- 

lozzi), 168 
St. James's Beauty, A {Benwell — Barto- 

lozzi), 168 
St. James's Park {Morland — Soiron), 277 

St. John the Baptist {Raphael — Vendra- 

mini), 280 
Samuel {Reynolds — Delatre), 255 
Sandby, Paul {Falconet — Reading), 271 
Sappho, inspired by Love, composing an 

ode in honour of Venus {Kauffmann — 

Facius), 258 
Saturday Night {Bigg — Nutter), 213 
Savoyard, The {Turner), 235 
Scarcity in India {Singleton — Knight), 206 
Scenes from the " Arabian Nights " 

{Bunbury — Ryder), 272 
Scholar Rewarded, "The {Stothard — 

Knight), 206 
Seasons, The {Hamilton — Nutter), 213 
Seasons, The {Hamilton — Oghorne), 266 
Seasons, The Four {Buck — Freeman), 259 
See-Saw {Hamilton — Knight), 207 
Sefton, Isabella (Stanhope), Countess of 

{Cofway — Dickinson), 189 
Sempstress, The. See Miss Vernon 
Sensibility. See Lady Hamilton 
Sensitive Plant, The {JVestall — Nutter), 

Serena. See Miss Sneyd 
Serenity {Cipriani — f^endramini), 280 
Setting out to the Fair {Wheatley — Egin' 

ton), 258 
Seymour, Hugh Henry John {Cosway — 

Cheesman), 174 
Shakespeare nursed by Tragedy and 

Comedy {Romney — B. Smith), 277 
Sharp, Mrs. {Cheesman), 175 
Sheffield, John, Lord {Reynolds — yones), 

Sheltered Lamb, The {Hamilton — Gau- 
gain), 193 
Shepherd Boy, The. See Sir William 

Shepherdess, The {Woodford— y. R, 

Smith), 220 
Shepherdess of the Alps, The {Kauff- 

mann — Bartolozzi), 167 
Shepherdess of the Alps, The {Gaugain), 

Sheridan (Hester Jane) and Child {Hopp- 
ner — Nugent), 284 
Sheridan, Eliza Anne (Miss Linley) 

{Coeway — Condi), 187 
Sheridan, Mrs., as St. Cecilia {Reynolds — 

Dickinson), 189 
Sheridan, Mrs., as St. Cecilia {Reynolds 

—T. Watson), 241 
Shipwrecked Sailor Boy, The {Bigg — 

Gaugain), 194 
Showman, The {Barney — Gaugain), 193 



Sibyl, A (Reni — Benedetri), 251 
Siddons, Mrs., xvi 

Siddons, Mrs. {Bateman — Burke), 171 
Siddons, Mrs. (Doivrnnan — Tomitns), 233 
Siddons, Mrs., as " The Grecian 

Daughter" {Pine — C. JVatson), 282 
Siddons, Mrs., as " The Tragic Muse " 

{Reynolds — Haivard), 261 
Siddons, Mrs. See Mr. Kemble 
Sigismunda [Hogarth — B. Smith), 276 
Silence (fiar:;/azis; — Clarke), 283 
Simplicity {Artaud — Duterreau), 257 
Simplicity. See Miss T. Gwatkin 
Sinclair, Diana (Macdonald), Lady {Cos- 

ivay — Bo-vi), 254 
Sleepmg Girl, The {Reynolds — Janes), 199 
Sleeping Nymph, The(0/>/V — Simon), 276 
Smith (Lady) and her Children {Reynolds 

— Bartolozzi), 165 
Smyth, Lady. See Smith 
Snake in tne Grass, The {Reynolds — 

Smith), 220 
Sneyd, Miss, as "Serena" {Romney — 

Jones), 199, 262 
Soldier's Return, The {Morland — 

Graham), 260 
Soliloquy, The (^. JVarS), 238 
Solitude {Smith), 220 
Sophia {Peters — Hogg), 196 
Sophia, Princess {Ramherg — fVard), 238 
Sophia, Princess {Hopfner — C. fVatson), 

Sophonisba, Queen of Carthage {Kauff- 

marm — Facius), 258 
Spencer, The Ladies Charlotte and Anne, 

"The Mask " {Reynolds — Schiavonetti), 

Spencer, Georgiana, Countess {Gains- 

borough — Bartolo-zzi), 167 
Spencer, Lord Henry and Lady Char- 
lotte, "The Fortune-Tellers" {Rey- 
nolds — Jones), 199 
Spencer, Lavinia, Countess {Reynolds — 

Bartoloziii), 167 
Spinster, The. See Lady Hamilton 
Spirit of a Child, The {Peters — Bar- 

tolozzi), 22 1 
Spirit of a Child {Peters — Dickinson), 

Spring {IVheatley — Bartolozzi), 167 
Spring {Cheesman), 175 
Spring {Hamilton — Facius), 259 
Squire's Door,Thc [Morland — Duterreau), 

Stanhope, Isabella. See Countess of 


Stanhope, Hon. Mrs., as " Contempla- 
tion " [Reynolds — C. fVatson), 282 

Stanhope, Lady Anna Maria [CosTvay — 
Car don), 254 

Stanhope, Lady Hester (Morning 
Amusement)[Kauffmann — Ryland), 136 

Stanhope, Hon. Leicester [Reynolds — 
Bartolozzi), 167 

Stella [Dunthorne — Scott), 274 

Storacci, Signora [Bettelini), 251 

Storm [Bigg — Ogborne), 266 

Storm in Harvest, A [fVestall — 
Meadoivs), 263 

Strangers at Home, The [Morland — 
Nutter), 213 

Strolling Musicians [Rigaud — Delatre), 

Stubbs, George [Falconet — Reading), 271 
Studious Fair, The [Marcuard], 210 
Summer [fVheatley — Bartolo-zzi), 167 
Summer [Cheesman), 175 
Summer [Hamilton — Facius), 259 
Summer's Amusement [Hamilton — Gau- 

gain). 194 
Summer Amusements [Bartolczzi — 

Marcuard), 2io 
Sunday Morning [Bigg — Nutter), 213 
Sunshine [Bigg — Ogborne), 266 
Sweet Poll of Plymouth [Stothard — 

Knight), 208 
Swinburne, Martha [Cosioay — Bovi), 254 
Sylvia [Peters — Dickinson), 189 
Sylvia [fVheatley — Hogg), 195 
Sylvia. See Lady Anne Fitzpatrick 
Sylvia overseen by Daphne {Kauffmann — 

Tomkins), 227 
Sympathy {Cipriani — ^endramini), 280 

Tale of Love, A [Bunbury — Sherwin), 

Tallien, Madame [Masquerier — Bond), 

Tancred and Sigismunda. See Kemble 
Taste in High Life [Hogarth — Phillips), 

Tea Garden, A [Soiron — Morland), 277 
Telemachus in AulS Spartana [Kauffmann 

— Ryland), 136 
Telemachus Red use [Kauffmann — 

Ryland), 136 
Temperance [Kauffmann — Scorodoomoff), 

Temptation [Romberg — fV. fVard), 238 
Tenant's Family [Stothard — Knight), 207 
Tender Mother, The [Martin), 283 
Thisbe [ — Nutter), 206 



Thomond, Mary (Palmer), Marchioness 

of {Latvrer.ce — Bond), 253 
Thomond, Marchioness of {Thomson — 

Meadows), 263 
Thoughts on Matrimony {y, R. Smith — 

IV. fVard), 220, 237 
Thoughts on a Single Life (J. R. Smith), 

220, 238 
Three Holy Children, The {Peters — 

Simon), 276 
Tickell, Mrs. {Cosway — Conde'), 187 
ToUemache, Hon. Anna, " Robinetta " 

{Reynolds — Jones), 199 
Tom and his Pigeons {Russell — Knight), 

Tom Jones, The Adventures of (Dozun- 

man — Simon), 276 
Tom Jones and Molly Seagrim {Mor- 

lund — Scott), 274 
Tom Jones and Sophia Western {Mor- 

lana— Scott), 274 
Tomb of Shakespeare, The {Kauffmann 

— Bartolozzi), 167 
Topham, Major Edward {Russell — Tom- 

kins), 228-230 
Tovvnshend, Hannah, Marchioness of 

{Reynolds — Cheesman), 175 
Tragedy {Cipriani — f^endramini), 280 
Tragic Muse, The. See Mrs. Siddons 
Tragic Readings {Boyne — Knight), 207 
Triumph of Beauty and Love, The 

{Cipriani — Bartolozzi), 127, 165 
Turkish Ambassador, The {Miller — N. 

Schia-vonetti), 216 
Turner, Miss, "Reflections on Werther " 

{Crosse — Thew), 222 
Twelve Leading London Artists {Falconet 

—Pariset), 268 

Una {Kauffmann — Burke), 170 
Una. See Miss E. Beauclerk 
Universal Power of Love, The {Kirk — 
Car don), 255 

Valentine, The {Ansell — Knight), 207 

Variety {Morland — fV. JVard), 239 

Venus {Titian — Facius), 259 

Venus. See Mrs. Robinson 

Venus and Cupid {Titian — Cheesman), 

Venus and Cupid {Reynolds — Collyer), 

Venus chiding Cupid {Reynolds — Barto- 

loz%i), 167 
Venus dissuading Adonis from Hunting 

{Ccstvay — Blake), 252 

Venus lending her Cestus to Juno {Kauff- 
mann — Gaugain), 190 

Venus of Toterdown Hill, The {Harding 
— Ogborne), 267 

Venus presenting Helen to Paris {Kauff- 
mann — Ryland), 136 

Venus Sleeping {Pernotin — Bartolo%%i), 
159, 165 

Venus, Toilet of. See Mrs. Robinson 

Vernon, Miss, as " The Sempstress " 
{Romney — Cheesman), 174 

Village Maids, The (Stothard — Ogborne), 

Villager, The {A Lady—Tomiins), 227 

Villagers Dancing (C. Turner), 235 

Villiers, Lady Gertrude (C. fVilkin), 

Viola {Shelley— C. Watson), 282 
Visit (The) returned in the Country 

{Morland — Nutter), 212, 253 
Visit to the Woman of the Lime Trees 

{Romberg — Ryder), 272 
Visme, Miss De, "The Woodland 

Maid" {Laivrence — Bond), 253 

Waddy, Miss {Buck — Cheesman), 174 
Wales, T.R.H. The Prince and Princess 

of {M. Sloane), 217 
Walpole, Horatio. See Orford 
Wanton Trick, The (Tomkins), 227 
Wedding Ring, The {Ansell— Knight), 

Welch Peasants {fVestall — Cardon), 255 
Wells, Mrs. See '" Lingo and Cowslip " 
Wenzel, Baron {Conde), 187 
West, Sir Benjamin {Stuart — C. fVatson), 

What you will {J. R. Smith), 220 
Wheelbarrow, The {Wheatley — Delatre), 

Whiteford, Mrs. {Cosvuay — Minasi), 265 
Whitehead, William {Doughty — Collyer), 

Widow, A {y. R. Smith), 220 
Wife, A {y. R. Smith), 220 
Wife of Bath, The {Gaugain), 190, 

Wilbraham, Mrs. {Gardner — Watson), 

William Frederick of Gloucester, Prince 

{Reynolds — C. Watson), 282 
Willis, Dr. {Russell— Collyer), 177 
Window of New College, Oxford 

{Reynolds — Earlom), 257 
Window of New College, Oxford 

{Reynolds — Facius), 258 



Winter {fVheatUy — Bartoloxzi), 167 
Winter's Amusement {Hamilton — Gau- 

gain), 194 
Woollett, William {Stuart— C. fVatson), 

Woman feeding Fowls, A {Morland — 

J. R. Smith), 219 
Woman (An old) opening a Gate 

{Gaugaitt), 193 
Woman tending Flowers, A {Morland — 

y. R. Smith), 219 
Woman's Head, A {Dow—JV. Baillie), 

Wood Girl, The {Princess Eli-zaheth— 

Tomkins), 226 
Woodland Maid. See Miss De Visme 
Wood Nymph, The {Woodford— J. R. 

Smith), 220 
Woronzow Children, The {Cosvoay — 

C. Watson), 281 

Yarborough, Lord. See Pelham 

York, Duchess of, 154 

York, Duchess of {Conde), 187 

York, Duchess of {Beechey — Knight), 

York, Frederick, Duke of {Reynolds — 

Jones), 199 
Yorkshire Schoolmistress, The {Saunders 

— Duterreau), 257 
Young, Mrs,, as Cora {Hobday — Bond), 

Young Circassian, The {Peters — Scoro- 

doomoff), 273 
Young (The) Nurse and Quiet Child 

{Morland — Graham), 260 
Young Thornhill's First Interview 

{Stothard — Simon), 276 
Youth {Hoare — Gaugain), 193 

Zephyrus and Flora {Stothard — Blake), 

Zeuxis composing the Picture of Juno 

{Kauffmann — Bartolozzi), 167 


Printed by R. & k. Clark, Limited, Editt/urgh 




This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

HfcgP COL m 

jun y'S6 
JUN5 1968 

Book SUp-36m-7,'63(D8634B4)4280 

A 001 058 459 7 


l**«i«il» of CaMoma. Los Angeles 

L 005 477 242 1 


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